The Rise of Perovskite Solar Cells 2015-2025

 Published On: Nov, 2015 |    No of Pages: 116 slides |  Published By: IDTechEx | Format: PDF
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As one of the top ten science breakthroughs of 2013, perovskite solar cells have shown potential both in the rapid efficiency improvement (from 2.2% in 2006 to the latest record 20.1% in 2014) and in cheap material and manufacturing costs. Perovskite solar cells have attracted tremendous attention from the likes of DSSC and OPVs with greater potential. Many companies and research institutes that focused on DSSCs and OPVs now transfer attention to perovskites with few research institutes remaining exclusively committed to OPVs and DSSCs.
Perovskite solar cells are a breath of fresh air in the emerging photovoltaic technology landscape. They have amazed with an incredibly fast efficiency improvement, going from just 2% in 2006 to over 20.1% in 2015.
Photovoltaic (PV) technologies are basically divided into two big categories: wafer-based PV (also called 1st generation PV) and thin-film cell PV.
Traditional crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells (both single crystalline silicon and multi-crystalline silicon) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells belong to the wafer-based PVs. Among different single-junction solar technologies, GaAs exhibits the highest efficiency, followed by c-Si cells. The latter dominates the current PV market (about 90% market share).
Thin-film cells normally absorb light 10-100 times more efficiently than silicon, allowing the use of films of just a few microns thick. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) technology has been successfully commercialized, with more than 20% cell efficiency and 17.5% module efficiency record. CdTe cells currently take about 5% of the total market. Other commercial thin-film technologies include hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) cells, taking approximately 2% market share each today. Copper zinc tin sulphide technology has been developed for years and it will still require some time for real commercialization.
The emerging thin-film PVs are also called 3rd generation PVs, which refer to PVs using technologies that have the potential to overcome Shockley-Queisser limit or are based on novel semiconductors. The 3rd generation PVs include DSSC, organic photovoltaic (OPV), quantum dot (QD) PV and perovskite PV. The cell efficiencies of perovskite are approaching that of commercialized 2nd generation technologies such as CdTe and CIGS. Other emerging PV technologies are still struggling with lab cell efficiencies lower than 15%.

High and rapidly improved efficiencies, as well as low potential material & processing costs are not the only advantages of perovskite solar cells. Flexibility, semi-transparency, tailored form factors, thin-film, light-weight are other value propositions of perovskite solar cells.
With so many improvements, perovskite solar cell technology is still in the early stages of commercialization compared with other mature solar technologies as there are a number of concerns remaining such as stability, toxicity of lead in the most popular perovskite materials, scaling-up, etc. Crystalline silicon PV modules have fallen from $76.67/W in 1977 to $0.4-0.5/W with fair efficiency in early 2015.
- Will perovskite solar cells be able to compete with silicon solar cells which dominate the PV market now?
- What is the status of the technology?
- What are the potential markets?
- Who is working on it?
These questions will be answered in this report.
The report will also benchmark other photovoltaic technologies including crystalline silicon, GaAs, amorphous silicon, CdTe, CIGS, CZTS, DSSC, OPV and quantum dot PV. Cost analysis is provided for future perovskite solar cells. A 10-year market forecast is given based on different application segments. Possible fabrication methods and material choices are discussed as well.
The market forecast is provided based on the following applications:
- Smart glass
- Outdoor furniture
- Perovskites in tandem solar cells
- Utility
- Portable devices
- Third world/developing countries for off-grid applications
- Automotive
- Others
1.1. Overview of Research-Cell Efficiencies of Different Solar Technologies
1.2. New Breakthrough in Solar Technology
1.3. Perovskite Solar Cell Development Timeline
2.1. Photovoltaic Technology Classification by Generation
2.2. Photovoltaic Technology Classification by Material
2.3. Silicon Solar Technologies
2.4. Golden Triangle of Solar Cells
2.5. Technology Development Roadmap
2.6. Efficiencies of Different Solar Technologies: Cells and Modules
2.7. Life Cycle of PV and Energy Payback Times
2.8. Price of Different PV Technologies
2.9. Solar Device Structures of Different PV Technologies
2.10. Open-Circuit Voltage Versus Optical Bandgap
2.11. Maximum Photo Energy Utilisation
2.12. Metrics Comparison of Different PV Technologies
2.13. Crystalline Silicon
2.14. Gallium Arsenide
2.15. Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon
2.16. Cadmium Telluride
2.17. Copper Indium Gallium (Di)selenide
2.18. Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide
2.19. Organic Photovoltaic
2.20. Quantum Dot Photovoltaic
2.21. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
2.22. Perovskite
3.1. Global PV Industry Growth 1993 - 2014
3.2. Cost of Generating Electricity
3.3. PV Module Prediction based on Learning Curve
3.4. Typical PV System Prices in Selected Countries
3.5. Total Energy Generation Cost of Perovskite PVs
3.6. Perovskite Module Cost Estimation
3.7. Future Perovskite PV System Cost Breakdown
3.8. Breakdown of Future P-type Silicon Tandem System with Perovskite Stack
4.1. Summary of Commercial Opportunity
4.2. Application Roadmap of Perovskite Photovoltaics
4.3. Smart Glass
4.4. Building Integrated Photovoltaics
4.5. Utility Market
4.6. Outdoor Furniture
4.7. Automotive
4.8. Third World Application
4.9. Portable Electronics
4.10. Assumptions & Analysis
4.11. Market Forecast in US$ Million
4.12. Market Forecast Considering the Whole Module Value
4.13. Market Segment by Value in 2025
5.1. Solar Spectrum
5.2. Calculating Efficiency
5.3. What Is Perovskite?
5.4. Perovskite Structure
5.5. Perovskite Solar Cells—Selling Points
5.6. Value Propositions
5.7. Working Principle
5.8. Barriers & Challenges
5.9. Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells
5.10. Mixture Halide Perovskite Is More Stable
5.11. Hysteresis Behaviour in the Current-Voltage Curves
5.12. Tandem Solar Cell: Perovskite Stack Can Be Printed on top of Existing Silicon PV Cells
5.13. Efficiency versus Transmission
5.14. Progress in PCEs of DSSC
5.15. Perovskite Solar Cell Evolution 1
5.16. Perovskite Solar Cell Evolution 2
6.1. Classification of Perovskite Solar Cells
6.2. Structures/Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells
6.3. Production of silicon and silicon wafers
6.4. Deposition of Perovskite Films
6.5. Engineering the Deposition Process
6.6. Processing Planar Heterojunction without TiO2
6.7. Deposition Processes for Perovskite Films
6.8. One Step Precursor Deposition
6.9. Sequential Deposition Process
6.10. Two Step Spin-Coating Deposition
6.11. Spray Coating Deposition
6.12. Slot-Die Coating Process
6.13. Dual Source Vacuum Deposition
6.14. Sequential Vapour Deposition
6.15. Vapour-Assisted Solution Process
7.1. Material Combinations
7.2. Organic Ions in Perovskite
7.3. Halogen Ions in Perovskite
7.4. Bandgap Tuning
7.5. Possible Material Improvement
7.6. Interface Layers
7.7. Polymer HTMs
7.8. Small Molecule HTMs Based on Phenylamine Derivatives
7.9. Small Molecule HTMs without Phenylamine Derivatives
8.1. Crystalsol (CZTS)
8.2. CSIRO
8.3. Dyesol
8.4. Fraunhofer ISE
8.5. FrontMaterials
8.6. G24 Power
8.7. Oxford Photovoltaics
8.8. Saule Technologies
8.9. Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)
8.10. Weihua Solar
10.1. CSIRO
10.2. Dyesol
10.3. Fraunhofer ISE
10.4. FrontMaterials
10.5. Oxford Photovoltaics
10.6. Saule Technologies
10.7. Xiamen Weihua Solar Co.,Ltd.
11.1. Alta Devices
11.2. Armor
11.3. Belectric
11.4. CrayoNano AS
11.5. Crystalsol GmbH
11.6. DisaSolar
11.7. Eight19 Ltd
11.8. Exeger
11.9. Flexink
11.10. G24 Power Ltd
11.11. Heliatek GmbH
11.12. NanoGram Corp
11.13. National Research Council Canada
11.14. New Energy Technologies Inc
11.15. Polyera Corporation
11.16. Raynergy Tek Incorporation
11.17. Solaronix
11.18. SolarPrint Ltd
11.19. Sumitomo Chemical and CDT
11.20. Ubiquitous Energy Inc
11.21. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
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