Agriculture of India- The Main Back Bone of Indian Economy


Cultivating crops of growth

AgricultureThe lunch time in the office, the recess in school, the buffet at party and dinner time at our home, what is the common factor in all of them? Food! It is the most crucial thing for human survival. That is what keeps a human being alive. It is ultimately for what a man toils for; providing two square meals for himself and his family. And this very source of food comes from agriculture. Whatever we consume today, rice, wheat, pulses, vegetables, oil are all the harvest of agriculture. The cash crops Cotton, Jute, Sugar Cane, Tobacco, Oil Seeds  which are usually termed as money maker plants are also a yield of agriculture. Indian agriculture has a long history. As India is mainly a land of villages and agriculture is the main profession of the village people, so it holds a very significant place in the lives of the people of this country. Moreover the economy of the country is mainly agro-based and with the other sectors relating to it, it becomes even more valuable for the fiscal structure of the nation.

Today, India ranks second in the worldwide farm production. This was not the scenario during the early years, which had witnessed recurrent famines. Farming in India was mainly monsoon based and its erratic pattern ended up disappointing the farmers and the Indian agriculture sector in a huge way. The production was quite low, not even meeting the demand of one fourth of the population. It was post 1970 after the green revolution that this segment made a 360 degree turnaround. The outcome was very encouraging as the fields gave out bumper crop production, filling the gap between supply and demand. Improved irrigation facility, channeling of rivers and canals along with modernized farming tools propelled its growth momentum.

It also opened doors for exporting our harvest to the foreign nations as well from whom we were importing our food requirements earlier. Soon, the concept of GM (Genetically Modified) crops was also introduced in India. Apart from cotton, genetic engineering experiments are being conducted on maize, mustard, sugarcane, sorghum, pigeonpea, chickpea, rice, tomato, brinjal, potato,  banana, papaya, cauliflower,oilseeds, castor, soyabean and medicinal plants. However the use of GM crops in India has been controversial. Modern agricultural equipments and machineries have aided a lot in the development of this sector. Tractors, Baler, Beet harvester, Beet cleaner loader, Bean harvester, Cane harvester, Combine harvester, Conveyor belt are some of the latest equipments used in farming now a days. Even after all the inclusion of these machineries the traditional old bull and plough technique still prevails in India. Along with all these, the utilization of fertilizers and pesticides have gone up tremendously. As a result of fine growth, the agricultural industry has also recorded a noteworthy development. The FMCG sector has specifically gained momentum due to agricultural development. The agriculture market is filled with products relating to the agro-farming materials.

The agricultural sector has experienced rapid revolution in the past two decades. The economic policy of globalization and liberalization has opened up new avenues for agricultural modernization. According to a market report, India has developed as a key player in the global agriculture market. In the last five years, the country’s agriculture exports have multiplied from around $ 12.75 billion dollars to $ 33.99 billion dollars. Hence, with such encouraging numbers, this segment is really supporting the Indian economy and its GDP growth in a big way.