Milk contains essential nutrients required for the body. It is full of calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorous, vitamin B12 and a balance of other nutrients that helps to build your bones and teeth as well as promote the healthy function of your muscles and blood vessels. Starting your day with milk in your morning cereal is a great way for a solid start. Drinking a cup of warm milk before going to bed at night gives you a better night’s sleep.
Besides cow, the milk of Buffalo, goats, camels, sheep, donkey, yak and reindeer are consumed by humans. In the United States of America, they have categorized the milk into two grades. Grade A milk is for direct sales and consumption and is inspected every six months while Grade B milk is used for processing or making milk products like butter, cream, cheese etc. This is inspected only every two years. Before it comes ready to consume, milk goes through various processes like pasteurization and homogenization. Pasteurization is the process by which milk is heated to a certain temperature to kill all bacteria and then cooled for storage and transportation. It is generally heated up to 45 degrees Fahrenheit for half an hour or 163 degrees F for fifteen seconds. In Ultra pasteurization, the milk is heated to 285 degrees F for one or two seconds, thus sterilizing the milk. Since this type of ultra sterilization extends shelf life, it can be stored without refrigeration for a longer time. milk market
When you allow the milk which is taken directly from the cow to be refrigerated, we can see that the cream will separate. To prevent this, the milk has to be homogenized. Homogenization is the process of breaking up the fat globules in cream to such a small size that they remain suspended evenly in the milk rather than separating out and floating to the surface.
The top milk producing countries are India, USA, China, Pakistan, Russia, Brazil, Germany, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom and Turkey. India, though it is one of the largest producer and consumer of milk, does not export or import milk. By improving the quality and quantity of livestock and livestock products, India is trying to reach a target of producing 191 million tones of milk a year by 2020. The top milk importing countries are Italy, Germany, Belgium, France, Spain, Netherlands, Ireland, Portugal, Greece and United Kingdom.