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The global market for utility-scale electricity storage technology has
reached $10.3 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach nearly $12.1
billion in 2015 and nearly $26.2 billion, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR)
This report provides:-An overview of the global markets for utility-scale electrical storage (UES)
technologies which are implemented to temporarily store electricity during
periods of available generation capacity, for subsequent use during periods of
increased demand, in support of load leveling and grid balancing.-Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and
projections of CAGRs through 2020.-Information on various UES products and components such as injection pumps,
wellheads, compressors, expanders, gas turbines, hydro turbines, dams,
centrifugal pumps, and a suite of other equipment and facilities.-Requirements for installation of UES technologies such as subterranean caves,
aquifers, or abandoned/sealed mine shafts, or surface features such as an
existing reservoir or reservoir site, typically located in areas of high
topographical relief, and frequently including substantial biological and other
natural resources.-The basis and installation/market potential for UES demand regionally.-Analysis of the market's dynamics including growth drivers, inhibitors, and
opportunities.-Profiles of major players in the industry.
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
BCC Research’s goal in conducting this study was to assess and describe the
current status, and assess the potential growth of the worldwide utility-scale
electricity storage (UES) technology industry and the market for associated
storage technologies. More specifically, the study included the following
objectives: (1) summarize existing UES technologies and promising emerging
technologies that are under development; (2) evaluate the existing UES
technology industry, focusing on the manufacturers and providers of major
components for viable storage technologies; and (3) assess market potential for
UES technologies over a five-year period from 2015 through 2020.
REASONS FOR COMPLETING THIS STUDY
With the exception of the recent period immediately following the global
economic turndown, global demand for electricity is expected to continue to
increase through at least the next two decades. However, much of the world’s
electricity generation industry is in the midst of a turning point. In support
of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction regulations and industry trends, the
electricity generation sector is in the process of transitioning generally away
from coal- and oil-fired electricity production, and toward the installation of
increasing proportions of renewables. However, many renewable energy resources
are intermittent in nature: Solar cells only generate electricity when the sun
is shining, and wind turbines only generate power when sufficient wind is
blowing. To meet consumer electricity demand, which is often not aligned with
available renewable power production capacity, very large-scale energy storage
technologies are needed.
The purpose of this report is to provide a regional assessment of the UES market
potential, as well as existing and projected future market sizes. This is an
important scope, because UES markets vary substantially based on regional
characteristics and on the technology in question. Three UES technologies,
compressed air energy storage (CAES), pumped hydrologic storage (PHS) and grid
scale batter energy storage (BES) technologies, are considered in this report;
the first two technologies are capable of storing sufficient energy to be
relevant at the utility scale — hundreds to thousands of megawatts (MWs)
generation capacity. Pumped hydrologic storage and compressed air energy storage
require substantially different geologic and climatic conditions (sufficient
topographic relief, land area, and water for PHS; and sufficient subsurface
geology for CAES). Within this context, this report identifies the basis and
installation/market potential for UES demand in each region, within the
This study reviews UES technologies, along with relevant market and production
information, technological descriptions and issues, applications, and market
factors and potential, and gives an overview of supporting incentives and
regulations in major worldwide markets. This study will be of interest to
current and potential manufacturers and suppliers of UES technologies and
components, as well as venture capitalists, entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial
companies interested in entering or expanding into the UES technology sector. It
will also be of interest to corporate planners and strategists, companies
involved in the production of combustion turbines, hydro turbines, compressors,
pumps and other infrastructure required for the implementation of UES
technologies, as well as other energy efficiency advocacy groups, and other
public- and private-sector interest groups and market analysts.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM
In order to construct a comprehensive assessment, initiatives being carried out
by industry professionals, associations, academic collaborations and government
agencies have been included. To evaluate the most current data available, we
sought the latest professional perspectives from the most recent trade shows,
white papers and legislative hearings.
This study will be of interest to utility professionals around the world,
including industry leaders, regulatory agencies, trade associations and
international investors. It will also be of interest to economic development
planners as well as manufacturers and distributors of electric energy storage
SCOPE OF REPORT AND METHODOLOGY
The scope of this investigation includes the major viable UES technologies that
are currently being implemented in the power generation industry. These
technologies are implemented to temporarily store electricity during periods of
available generation capacity, for subsequent use during periods of increased
demand, in support of load leveling and grid balancing. The energy storage
technologies discussed in this report are increasingly deployed in support of
intermittent renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind energy, which
frequently generate power outside of peak demand periods. In these cases, UES
technologies can facilitate delivery of renewable power to end users during
periods of high and peak use, in support of utility level regulations and
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies, which are increasingly
common in the global electricity market.
Installation and operation of UES technologies can include various products and
components such as injection pumps, wellheads, compressors, expanders, gas
turbines, hydro turbines, dams, centrifugal pumps, and a suite of other
equipment and facilities.
Other important requirements for installation of UES technologies may include,
depending on the specific technology employed, sufficient geological resources
such as subterranean caves, aquifers, or abandoned/sealed mine shafts, or
surface features such as an existing reservoir or reservoir site, typically
located in areas of high topographical relief, and frequently including
substantial biological and other natural resources. Although substantial amounts
of water and air may be required for operation of UES technologies, these
specific requirements are not considered UES products within this report,
because they are supplied at relatively little to zero direct cost, unlike
mechanical and other components, which must be purchased separately.
The market analysis provided in this report is based on a variety of data
sources. These include the most recent government, industry and academic data
regarding the projected level of demand for utility-scale electricity storage
technologies that could potentially translate into UES projects. These data were
supplemented with an evaluation of major enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects
that have been announced, or that are currently being proposed. Therefore, this
report provides a comprehensive review of available data to provide a realistic,
robust and accurate assessment of this quickly changing market.
Emerging UES technologies anticipated to be commercially viable within the next
five years are summarized but are not included in the market assessment of this
BCC Research analyzes each major viable utility-scale energy storage technology,
determines its current market status, examines its impact on future markets and
presents forecasts of growth over the next five years. Technological issues,
including the latest trends, are assessed and discussed, as are the current and
likely regulatory environments in support of this industry.
BCC Research analyzes the industry on a worldwide basis in terms of its
manufacturing and the deployment of its technologies or products. BCC Research
examines government roles in support of EOR technologies worldwide, including
regulatory support, government requirements and promotional incentives for
various UES technologies as relevant and available. BCC Research provides a
review of the most relevant UES technologies, discusses recent trends in
capacity installation and unit sales, and provides industry overviews and market
assessments for each UES technology.
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this
study. Background information, including reviews of each UES technology and its
implementation status, were collected from government and industry sources.
Specific citations and references are provided as needed to support this study,
and website links to government and industry studies, white papers, and other
relevant information are provided as relevant and available.
BCC Research’s research of present and historic market trends was conducted
primarily via phone interviews and Internet research, relying on personal
interviews and available governmental data. Provided internal company data and
annual documentation of sales relevant to each UES technology were also reviewed
in order to prepare market assessments. Based on the results of our surveys and
research, BCC Research analyzed the potential applications for each technology,
and forecast remaining 2015 sales and sales through 2020.
Market sizes and installed capacity figures were calculated based on data
obtained from surveyed parties, as well as published government and industry
data sources. Additionally, when available, the data provided in this report
were compared with other industry data to ensure relevance, applicability and
Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION - Complimentary 6 $0
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR COMPLETING THIS STUDY
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM
SCOPE OF REPORT AND METHODOLOGY
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
Chapter- 2: SUMMARY 2 $250
Chapter- 3: OVERVIEW 37 $1277
UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
OVERALL CHALLENGES FOR THE EES INDUSTRY
CHALLENGES FOR IMPLEMENTING LARGE-SCALE EES
COSTS AND ECONOMIC VIABILITY
BENEFITS OF UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
DRAWBACKS OF UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
DESCRIPTION OF UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEM
EMERGING UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
Table 1 : UES TECHNOLOGIES
Chapter- 4: REGULATORY SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES FOR CAES, PHS AND ENERGY STORAGE
TECHNOLOGIES 95 $3279
REGULATORY SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES
UNITED STATES REGULATORY SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES
Chapter- 5: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 17 $587
GLOBAL INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
UES INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS
Chapter- 6: MAJOR MARKETS AND TRENDS IN PRICE AND PERFORMANCE 50 $1726
REGIONAL MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS
UES MARKET PREREQUISITES
GLOBAL MARKET CENTERS
OVERVIEW OF THE GLOBAL UES TECHNOLOGY MARKET AND REGIONAL COMPARISON
Chapter- 7: COMPANY PROFILES 77 $2658
PUMPED HYDROLOGIC STORAGE PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS
COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS
Chapter- 8: APPENDIX I 3 $104
ABBREVIATIONS OF UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
Chapter- 9: APPENDIX II 2 $69
List of Tables
Table A : LIST OF GLOBAL MARKETS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
Table B : RESEARCH INFORMATION SOURCES
Summary Table : GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY
CAPITAL EXPENDITURE (CAPEX) BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 1 : UES TECHNOLOGIES
Table 2 : MAIN MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
Table 3 : UTILITY APPLICATIONS OF PHS, CAES AND BES
Table 4 : RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION TAX CREDIT: IN-SERVICE DEADLINE, 2014
Table 5 : CLEAN RENEWABLE ENERGY BONDS ALLOCATION SUMMARY, 2015
Table 6 : TAX CREDIT FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS (PV) AND SOLAR THERMAL ELECTRIC SYSTEMS
Table 7 : ARIZONA RENEWABLE ENERGY AND DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE QUOTAS, 2006-2025
Table 8 : BASE PRICE OF ENERGY AND TIME OF DELIVERY MULTIPLIERS
Table 9 : COLORADO RENEWABLE ENERGY PROPERTY TAX ASSESSMENT COST THRESHOLD
Table 10 : COLORADO RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARD QUOTAS, 2007-2020
Table 11 : CLASS I STANDARD FOR MAINE RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARD, 2008–2017
Table 12 : MARYLAND RENEWABLE ENERGY PORTFOLIO STANDARD COMPLIANCE REQUIREMENTS,
2006-2022 AND BEYOND
Table 13 : MICHIGAN RENEWABLE ENERGY STANDARD, ANNUAL BENCHMARKS, 2012-2015
Table 14 : NEW MEXICO RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION TAX INCENTIVE
Table 15 : TEXAS RENEWABLE GENERATION REQUIREMENT COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE, 2007-2015
Table 16 : ENERGY RESEARCH UNDER FP7
Table 17 : MAJOR NORTH AMERICAN UES COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND ENGINEERING
Table 18 : MAJOR EUROPEAN UES COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND ENGINEERING COMPANIES
Table 19 : MAJOR ASIAN UES COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS AND ENGINEERS
Table 20 : MAJOR UES INDUSTRY GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Table 21 : PREREQUISITES FOR UES TRACTION IN REGIONAL MARKETS
Table 22 : MAJOR HISTORIC UES PROJECTS IN NORTH AMERICA, 1961-1995
Table 23 : FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION PHS PERMITTING ACTIVITY, OCTOBER
Table 24 : NORTH AMERICAN PROPOSED CAES PROJECTS SINCE 2010
Table 25 : NORTH AMERICAN PHS NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 26 : NORTH AMERICAN CAES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 27 : NORTH AMERICAN BES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 28 : MAJOR HISTORIC UES PROJECTS IN EUROPE, 1965-2008
Table 29 : EUROPEAN PHS PROJECTS BY COUNTRY, 2015-2019
Table 30 : EUROPEAN CAES ANNOUNCED CAES PROJECTS SINCE 2007
Table 31 : EUROPEAN PHS NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 32 : EUROPEAN CAES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 33 : EUROPEAN BES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 34 : MAJOR HISTORIC UES PROJECTS IN ASIA AND AUSTRALIA BY COUNTRY,
Table 35 : ASIAN/AUSTRALIAN PHS PROJECTS BY COUNTRY, 2015-2020
Table 36 : ASIAN/AUSTRALIAN PHS NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 37 : ASIAN/AUSTRALIAN CAES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 38 : ASIAN/AUSTRALIAN BES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 39 : MAJOR HISTORIC UES PROJECTS IN LATIN AMERICA AND AFRICA, 1981-2004
Table 40 : REST OF THE WORLD PHS PROJECTS, 2015-2018
Table 41 : REST OF THE WORLD PHS NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 42 : REST OF THE WORLD BES NEW CAPACITY AND MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 43 : GLOBAL PHS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 44 : GLOBAL CAES MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 45 : GLOBAL BES MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 46 : GLOBAL BES MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 47 : GLOBAL UES NEW CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 48 : GLOBAL UES MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 49 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ABB, LTD.
Table 50 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ALSTOM HYDRO S.L.
Table 51 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ANDRITZ HYDRO GMBH
Table 52 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ANSALDO ENERGIA
Table 53 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: B. MAIER WASSERKRAFT
Table 54 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS, LTD.
Table 55 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: CHONGQING LISONG ELECTROMECHANICAL EQUIPMENT CO.,
Table 56 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: DONGFANG ELECTRIC CORP.
Table 57 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: EBARA CORP.
Table 58 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: GILBERT GILKES & GORDON, LTD.
Table 59 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: GLOBAL HYDRO ENERGY GMBH
Table 60 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: GUGLER WATER TURBINES GMBH
Table 61 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: HARBIN ELECTRIC MACHINERY CO., LTD.
Table 62 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: HITACHI, LTD. POWER SYSTEMS CO.
Table 63 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: HUNAN LINGLING HENGYUAN GENERATING EQUIPMENT CO.,
Table 64 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: HYDROWORKS LIMITED
Table 65 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: HYUNDAI IDEAL ELECTRIC CO.
Table 66 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: IMPSA INTERNATIONAL INC.
Table 67 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: INGETEAM ENERGY SA
Table 68 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: KIRLOSKAR BROTHERS, LTD.
Table 69 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: LITOSTROJ POWER D.O.O.
Table 70 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: MARELLIMOTORI S.P.A.
Table 71 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: MAVEL A.S.
Table 72 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: MEIDENSHA CORP.
Table 73 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES AND MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC
Table 74 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: OJSC TURBOATOM
Table 75 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ORENGINE INTERNATIONAL, LTD.
Table 76 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: OSSBERGER GMBH + CO
Table 77 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: PARSONS PEEBLES GENERATION, LTD.
Table 78 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: OJSC POWER MACHINES
Table 79 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: RAINPOWER NORWAY AS
Table 80 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: REIVAX S/A AUTOMACAO CONTROLE
Table 81 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: RITTMEYER AG
Table 82 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: JSC TURBOENGINEERING-RUSELPROM
Table 83 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: SICMEMOTORI SPA
Table 84 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: SPP PUMPS
Table 85 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: SUNDYNE CORP.
Table 86 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: TES VSETIN
Table 87 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: TOSHIBA POWER SYSTEMS CO.
Table 88 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: UCM RESITA SA
Table 89 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: VAPTECH
Table 90 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: VOITH HYDRO GMBH CO. KG
Table 91 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: WASSERKRAFT VOLK AG
Table 92 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: WEIR AMERICAN HYDRO
Table 93 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ALMiG KOMPRESSOREN GMBH
Table 94 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ALSTOM POWER
Table 95 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ANSALDO ENERGIA
Table 96 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: API HEAT TRANSFER INC.
Table 97 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ATLAS COPCO GAS AND PROCESS
Table 98 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: BAUER COMPRESSORS
Table 99 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: BRAYTON ENERGY
Table 100 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: BTEC TURBINES, LP
Table 101 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: DRESSER-RAND
Table 102 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: ELLIOTT CO.
Table 103 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: GE ENERGY
Table 104 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: MAN DIESEL AND TURBO SE
Table 105 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: PARKER HANNIFIN
Table 106 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: R&D DYNAMICS CORP.
Table 107 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: SIEMENS ENERGY
Table 108 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: SOLAR TURBINES INC.
Table 109 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: SSS GEARS, LTD.
Table 110 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: STRUTHERS WELLS
Table 111 : COMPANY OVERVIEW: SUSTAINX INC.
List of Figures
Summary Figure : GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY
CAPEX BY TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2020
Figure 1 : STYLIZED REPRESENTATION OF A DAILY LOAD CURVE
Figure 2 : EXAMPLE OF OFFSET RENEWABLE GENERATION: WIND GENERATION, CALIFORNIA
Figure 3 : SALINA (OKLAHOMA) PUMPED STORAGE PROJECT
Figure 4 : PHS SYSTEM UTILIZES SEAWATER, OKINAWA, JAPAN
Figure 5 : EXCAVATED PHS CONCEPT
Figure 6 : CROSS-SECTION OF A REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE
Figure 7 : REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE DURING ASSEMBLY
Figure 8 : GENERATOR FOR A REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE
Figure 9 : CROSS-SECTION OF GRAVITY POWER MODULE (GPM) SYSTEM
Figure 10 : HUNTORF CAES
Figure 11 : MCINTOSH CAES
Figure 12 : SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF A CAES SYSTEM
Figure 13 : AXIAL AIR COMPRESSOR (LEFT) AND RADIAL AIR COMPRESSOR (RIGHT)
Figure 14 : AIR EXPANDER
Figure 15 : STANDARD GAS TURBINE WITH COMPRESSOR SECTION
Figure 16 : MCINTOSH GAS TURBINE (BOTTOM), GENERATOR (TOP), AND EXHAUST (RIGHT)
Figure 17 : COMPARISON OF PHS, CAES, BES AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
Figure 18 : MATURITY STAGE OF ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
Figure 19 : FLOW BATTERY SYSTEM
Figure 20 : COMPARISON OF PHS, CAES AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
Figure 21 : IMPACT OF PRODUCTION TAX CREDIT EXPIRATION AND EXTENSION ON U.S.
ANNUAL INSTALLED WIND CAPACITY
Figure 22 : INDUSTRY STRUCTURE FOR PROCUREMENT/INSTALLATION OF PHS AND CAES
Figure 23 : U.S. UES STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES IN USE BY MARKET SHARE
Figure 24 : CUMULATIVE COMMISSIONED PHS INSTALLATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES BY
Figure 25 : PHS INSTALLATIONS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Figure 26 : PUMPED STORAGE PROJECTS GROWTH IN CHINA BY CAPACITY, 1994-2020
Figure 27 : U.S. PUMPED HYDRO STORAGE CAPACITY LOCATIONS
Figure 28 : U.S. POTENTIAL NEW PUMPED STORAGE PLANT SITES AT GREENFIELD
HYDROELECTRIC PLANT SITES
Figure 29 : PRELIMINARY PERMITS ISSUED FOR PUMPED STORAGE PROJECTS MAP
Figure 30 : LOCATIONS OF SELECT PROPOSED PHS PROJECTS
Figure 31 : CO-OCCURRENCE OF WIND RESOURCES AND GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS SUITABLE TO
Figure 32 : NORTH AMERICAN PHS MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 33 : NORTH AMERICAN CAES MARKET, 2014- 2020
Figure 34 : `NORTH AMERICAN BES MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 35 : ANNOUNCED EUROPEAN PHS CAPACITY, BY COUNTRY
Figure 36 : EUROPEAN PHS ELECTRICITY GENERATION, BY COUNTRY
Figure 37 : CO-OCCURRENCE OF WIND RESOURCES AND GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS SUITABLE TO
Figure 38 : EUROPEAN PHS MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 39 : EUROPEAN CAES MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 40 : EUROPEAN BES MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 41 : OCCURRENCE OF SALT FORMATIONS SUITABLE TO CAES
Figure 42 : ASIAN/AUSTRALIAN PHS MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 43 : ASIAN/AUSTRALIAN CAES MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 44 : ASIAN/AUSTRALIAN BES MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 45 : REST OF THE WORLD PHS MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 46 : REST OF THE WORLD BES MARKET, 2014-2020
Figure 47 : GLOBAL PHS MARKET BY REGION, 2014-2020
Figure 48 : GLOBAL CAES MARKET BY REGION, 2014-2020
Figure 49 : GLOBAL BES MARKET BY REGION, 2014-2020
Figure 50 : GLOBAL BES MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2020
Figure 51 : GLOBAL UES NEW CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2020
Figure 52 : GLOBAL UES MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2020