Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM Fuel Cells

 Published On: Sep, 2015 |    No of Pages: 291 |  Published By: BCC Research-JT Gabrielsen Consulting LLC Research | Format: PDF
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The global market for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) reached $340 million and $460 million in 2010 and 2014, respectively. This market is expected to reach $534 million by 2015 and $1.9 billion by 2020, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 29.4% from 2015 to 2020.

This report provides:

-An overview of the global market for materials for proton exchange membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells.
-Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2010 and 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.
-Examination of bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs); this includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink/electrode, the membrane itself, and the bipolar plate.
-Discussion covering the history and advancing technology of these components, the companies involved in these developments, the current and projected incentives, and the projected markets for such technologies.
-Presentations of consensus, optimistic, and pessimistic scenarios.
-Patent analysis as well as discussion covering power sources and vehicle components, emphasizing intellectual property issues.
-Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the field.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This analysis focuses on the three main components of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC): Membranes. Gaseous diffusion layers and bipolar plates. Catalysts and inks.

Polymer membranes that are the electrolyte, and therefore the heart of the fuel cell, receive extra attention. The report also examines the history and advancing technology of these components, the companies involved in these developments, the current and projected incentives, and the projected markets for such technologies.

One of several fuel cell designs, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is appropriate as a power source for transportation, stationary distributive power and small-scale applications such as portable electronic products. Applications for all types of fuel cells continue to evolve. In the process of this evolution, the different proton exchange membrane materials and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) will evolve and be adapted to more specific uses.

Identifying research for better membranes that have greater tolerances to poisoning, greater durability and lower costs is a major objective of this report. The U.S., Japanese, Chinese and European governments are pouring billions of dollars of loans, subsidies and outright grants into fuel cell research and development.

These investments are beginning to pay off, and there are even more examples of commercialization, including in stationary markets. Military markets are well established and automotive markets are beginning to grow. Wider use of portable product PEMFCs could be next.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
Hydrogen feed fuel cells are based on the electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. This electrochemical process does not pollute the environment with hydrocarbons, particulates or any sulfur or nitrogen oxides.

With this in mind, fuel cells are viewed as potential candidates for vehicle power, auxiliary power, mobile power, stationary distributed or central power, and portable product power. PEMFCs have a part in securing energy security for the country, improving the environment, greatly reducing urban pollution and creating jobs in manufacturing as the technology advances. They can also provide a cost-effective and performance-driven rival for advanced batteries.

The study identifies the opportunities and technological requirements of the PEMFC and the MEA and the bipolar plates for the PEMFC. When several units of the membrane electrode assembly are capped off with a bipolar plate and properly assembled, the arrangement is referred to as a stack.

This BCC Research report analyzes components of the PEMFC, a technology offering the promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance, price and efficiency advantages. Recent historic developments and approaches are described along with recent commercial developments and PEMFC state of the art. Questions to be answered include determining a timetable for PEMFC commercialization, as well as what types of membranes and membrane assemblies are needed to make this possible.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the broadly defined global PEM market and will be of interest to a variety of current and potential fuel cell users as well as fuel cell makers and component and membrane makers. This report also can provide valuable information in terms of assessing investments in particular technologies and, therefore, should benefit investors directly or indirectly. The vital importance of platinum as a catalyst for PEMFCs is addressed. Anyone interested in the precious metals market, in nanomaterials or in alternative catalysts will find the evaluations of the technology of interest. BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies and university researchers that contributed information for this report.

This analysis is designed to be as comprehensive as possible. This document is intended to be of value to a broad audience of business, technical, investment and regulatory professionals. It is an information source for an emerging industry as well as a reference on a developing technology. It presents analysis and forward-thinking evaluations that will be of advantage to manufacturers, material suppliers, and to local, state and federal government entities. Corporate planners will benefit from the reportís evaluation of the demands for proton exchange membranes, membrane electrode assemblies, and platinum catalyst and the companies involved in their development and manufacture. Others may find the broad discussions of energy policy, environmental impact, platinum supply and chemical synthesis of membranes to be of considerable value in understanding the opportunities and problems facing the fuel cell industry in the near- to mid-term.

SCOPE OF REPORT
The fuel cell industry in various forms has been developing for decades. There are notable examples of fuel cell successes. The PEMFC is emerging as a winner in many of the primary categories that fuel cells can satisfy. Existing membranes and assemblies still have room for improvement. PEMFC development and commercialization is anever-changing process. This BCC Research analysis examines the market and technology for the materials and technology of proton exchange membranes and electrode assemblies and for bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink or electrode, the membrane itself and the bipolar plate. Ancillary stack assembly materials such as bolts, gaskets, tie-outs, and final assembly and packaging costs are excluded.

This report details the actuals for 2010 and 2014, forecasts for 2015, and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) projections for 2020. When appropriate, consensus, optimistic and pessimistic scenarios are presented. A patent analysis and discussion of power sources and vehicle components describes where research is performed and emphasizes intellectual property issues. An extensive set of company profiles is provided.

METHODOLOGY
An in-depth analysis of technical and business literature and published dissertations, a review of the history of the technologies involved, interviews with industry experts, company representatives, federal government researchers and university scientists provide an assessment of the outlook for the next generation of PEMFCs and membrane electrode assemblies. Other information sources include product literature from suppliers, scientific references, conferences and patent searches.

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report, which is based on interviews with commercial and government sources, literature reviews and patent examinations. Throughout the report, past market data is expressed in current U.S. dollars, and estimates and projections are in constant 2015 U.S. dollars. Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario for wholesale (producer) prices that assumes no unanticipated technical advances and no unexpected legislation. When appropriate, pessimistic, consensus and optimistic market scenarios characterize several developmental markets. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. When appropriate, information from previously published sources is identified to allow a more detailed examination by clients.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Market assumptions used in this report include updates of material from an earlier version of this analysis, as well as from BCC Research studies, which were also prepared by this author. The author also edited the BCC Research newsletter, Fuel Cell Industry Report, which provided a uniquely valuable source for this market. Although many segments of the industry are well documented, much of this information is based on estimates, not hard facts. The distinction between these estimates and facts can be vital, and wherever possible, sources are identified.
Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION - Complimentary 4 $0
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE OF REPORT
METHODOLOGY
INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER

Chapter- 2: SUMMARY 2 $250
SUMMARY

Chapter- 3: PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OVERVIEW 29 $1144
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL FUNDAMENTALS
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL COMPANIES
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS

Chapter- 4: MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLIES 97 $3825
MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY FUNDAMENTALS
MEA OBJECTIVES
MEA FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY
MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY FUNCTIONAL STACK DESIGNS
GLOBAL MEA COMPONENT FOR PEMFCS MARKET
PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELLS
WHAT MAKES A GOOD PEMFC MEMBRANE?
MEMBRANE FABRICATION AND SYNTHESIS
MEMBRANE MATERIAL COMPOSITIONS
MEMBRANE COMPANIES
GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET STRUCTURE AND FORECAST

Chapter- 5: MEA, GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYERS AND BIPOLAR PLATES 77 $3036
GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYERS
BIPOLAR PLATES
MEA, GDL AND BIPOLAR PLATE COMPANIES
GLOBAL BIPOLAR PLATES AND GDLS FOR PEMFCS STRUCTURE FORECAST

Chapter- 6: CATALYSTS AND INKS 56 $2208
BACKGROUND
CATALYST INK COMPOSITIONS
CARBON COMPOSITE ELECTROCATALYST POWDERS
CATALYST AND INK COMPANIES
GLOBAL PEMFCS CATALYST AND INK STRUCTURE AND FORECAST

Chapter- 7: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS 26 $1025
INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUBSIDIES
ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS' INVOLVEMENT IN FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT
MEA DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES AND PRICES
PEMFC AND MEA PATENTS

List of Tables

Summary Table : GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 1 : FUEL CELL COMPARISON
Table 2 : PEMFC AND DMFC MAKERS
Table 3 : TYPES OF PORTABLE PRODUCTS
Table 4 : IMPORTANT PORTABLE PRODUCT MARKET FACTORS
Table 5 : PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
Table 6 : PORTABLE PEMFC MARKET FACTORS
Table 7 : STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
Table 8 : STATIONARY PEMFC MARKET FACTORS
Table 9 : TRANSPORTATION PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
Table 10 : CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC, AND PESSIMISTIC PEMFC VEHICLE SCENARIOS
Table 11 : SELECTED PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED MILITARY PRODUCT ROLES
Table 12 : OTHER PEMFC MARKET DRIVERS
Table 13 : OTHER PEMFC MARKET FACTORS
Table 14 : GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020
Table 15 : GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET RECESSION SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020
Table 16 : HYDROGEN STATION SAFETY CRISIS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020
Table 17 : FAILED FUEL CELL VEHICLE SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020
Table 18 : LITHIUM-ION BATTERY BAN ON AIRCRAFT SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020
Table 19 : CONSENSUS ON GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020
Table 20 : TWO OR MORE SIMULTANEOUS WARS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2020
Table 21 : FUEL CELL MEA PERFORMANCE GOALS
Table 22 : IMERYS GRAPHITE PROPERTIES
Table 23 : PANASONIC DMFC SPECIFICATIONS
Table 24 : ESTIMATED MEA COMPANY MARKET SHARES BY YEAR, THROUGH 2015
Table 25 : GLOBAL MEA MARKET BY COMPONENT, THROUGH 2020
Table 26 : MEMBRANE PARAMETER VARIABLES
Table 27 : PEM ELECTROLYTE ISSUES
Table 28 : ADVANTAGES OF A HIGHER TEMPERATURE MEMBRANE FOR A PEMFC
Table 29 : APPROACHES TO FUEL CELL IONOMER SYNTHESIS
Table 30 : MEMBRANE FABRICATION TECHNIQUES
Table 31 : FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF NAFION PFSA MEMBRANES
Table 32 : CONDUCTANCE COMPARISONS
Table 33 : VIRGINIA TECH BPS MEMBRANE PROPERTIES COMPARED WITH NAFION 117
Table 34 : COMPANIES PRODUCING ION SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS
Table 35 : ESTIMATED PEMFC FLUOROPOLYMER MEMBRANE COMPANY MARKET SHARE, 2015
Table 36 : GLOBAL PEM MATERIALS MARKET SHARE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 37 : GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 38 : GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 39 : ATTRIBUTES NEEDED FOR GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MATERIALS
Table 40 : PROS AND CONS OF GDL MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES
Table 41 : TYPICAL SOLUPOR PROPERTIES
Table 42 : TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SIGRACET GAS DIFFUSION LAYER
Table 43 : DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BIPOLAR PLATES
Table 44 : MATERIAL TYPES FOR BIPOLAR PLATES
Table 45 : SGL BIPOLAR PLATE TYPICAL PROPERTIES
Table 46 : NATURAL GRAPHITE TYPICAL VALUES
Table 47 : S.E.F.G. (SURFACED ENHANCED FLAKE GRAPHITE) TYPICAL VALUES
Table 48 : HIGH PURITY ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES
Table 49 : STANDARD ARTIFICIAL TYPICAL VALUES
Table 50 : CARBON FIBERS TYPICAL VALUES
Table 51 : ELECTROCHEM RESEARCH PROJECTS
Table 52 : GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 53 : GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 54 : PROJECTED COST AT HIGH-VOLUME MANUFACTURING
Table 55 : PERFORMANCE AND COST SUMMARY
Table 56 : GLOBAL MINE PRODUCTION OF PLATINUM AND PALLADIUM AND RESERVES
Table 57 : U.S. PGM SALIENT STATISTICS, 2008-2014
Table 58 : GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, THROUGH 2020
Table 59 : GLOBAL PEMFC INKS AND CATALYSTS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 60 : RESEARCH ASSOCIATION OF HYDROGEN SUPPLY/ UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY
Table 61 : MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEMFCS
Table 62 : PGM PRICES BY YEAR, 2008-2014
Table 63 : PEMFC AND MEA PATENTS

List of Figures

Summary Figure : GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, 2010-2015
Figure 1 : GENERIC PEMFC DIAGRAM WITH COMPONENTS
Figure 2 : DMFC CHEMISTRY
Figure 3 : GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020
Figure 4 : TOTAL GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010-2020
Figure 5 : SIMPLE MEA SCHEMATIC
Figure 6 : MEA CREATION FLOW CHART
Figure 7 : GLOBAL MEA MARKET SHARE BY COMPONENT, 2015
Figure 8 : WATER TRANSPORT IN A PEMFC
Figure 9 : SIMPORE MEMBRANES
Figure 10 : GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS BY TYPE, 2010-2020
Figure 11 : GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS BY TYPE, 2015
Figure 12 : GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY COMPONENT TYPE, 2010-2020
Figure 13 : GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON BY COMPONENT TYPE, 2015
Figure 14 : PREPARATION OF CARBON AEROGEL SUPPORTED PLATINUM
Figure 15 : GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, 2010-2020
Figure 16 : QUALITY CONTROL FLOW SHEET FOR SELECTING A PROPER MEA

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