LED Lighting for Public Transportation Vehicles Global Market Forecast & Analysis

 Published On: Mar, 2015 |    No of Pages: 651 |  Published By: ElectroniCast Consultants | Format: PDF
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This is the ElectroniCast analysis and forecast of global market consumption of light emitting diode-based lamps and related devices used in public transportation vehicles. For the purposes of this study, ElectroniCast defines public transportation as a shared passenger transportation service, which is available for use by the general public. Public transportation vehicles, included in this study, are listed below. Note: aircraft and taxis are not included in this analysis.

The LED lighting public transportation vehicles global market is segmented into the following vehicle (type) categories and sub-categories:

• Bus
- Interior
- Exterior
• Rail and Rapid Transit Vehicles
- Light-Rail, Tram/Trolley/Streetcar
  Interior
  Exterior
- Rapid Transit/Metro and Subway/Underground
  Interior
  Exterior
- High-Speed, Commuter/Intercity and Long-Distance
  Interior
  Exterior
• Watercraft/Ferries
  Interior
  Exterior

The market forecast is also segmented into the following product-type:

• LED Linear Lamps (Tubes)
• LED-based Back Light Unit (BLU) Bars for LCD Display Screens
• LED Signage/Destination Sign Board Modules
• Other/Miscellaneous LED Lamps and Luminaries

The consumption value is determined by multiplying the number of units by the average selling price. The average selling prices are based on the price of the LED lamps/ devices at the initial factory level. The consumption values are based on the end-user application and the end-user region.

ElectroniCast specializes in forecasting technology and global market trends in electronics, fiber optics, light emitting diodes (LEDs), advanced photonics, integrated circuits, microwave/wireless, and network communications. As an independent consultancy, ElectroniCast offers multi-client and custom market research studies to the world's leading companies based on comprehensive, in-depth analysis of quantitative and qualitative factors.

The product life cycles of high technology electronic products are short, and will continue to shrink. For success, it is vital to target the right products for development and to introduce them to the market at the right time. Decisions on major R&D and facility investments must be made before competitors’ products seize the market—and these decisions must be made quickly. ElectroniCast's fast-turn-around analysis and forecasts help you catch the windows of opportunity.

The 2014-2021 market data are segmented into the following geographic regions, plus a Global summary:

• America (North America, Central and South America)
• EMEA (Europe, Middle East, plus Africa)
• APAC (Asia Pacific)

The market forecast data are presented for LED lamps/devices, segmented by the following functions:

• Consumption Value (US$, million)
• Quantity (number/units)
• Average Selling Prices (ASP $, each)

This study is based on analysis of information obtained continually over the past several years, but updated through early March 2015. During this period, ElectroniCast analysts performed interviews with authoritative and representative individuals in the LED lighting product manufacturing, LCD TV/monitor manufacturing, and advertisement, mass transit authorities, transportation/infrastructure, R&D, display and retail industry, mobile/portable device developers, government, and other. The interviews were conducted principally with:

• Engineers, marketing personnel and management at manufacturers of LEDs (chips, components, lamps and fixtures) and LCD, as well as other technologies.
• Design group leaders, engineers, marketing personnel and market planners at major users and potential users of LEDs.
• Other industry experts, including those focused on standards activities, trade associations, and investments.

The interviews covered issues of technology, R&D support, pricing, contract size, reliability, documentation, installation/maintenance crafts, standards, supplier competition and other topics.

Customers and distributors also were interviewed, to obtain their estimates of quantities received and average prices paid. Customer estimates of historical and expected near term future growth of their application are obtained. Their views of use of new technology products were obtained.

The analyst then considered customer expectations of near term growth in their application, plus forecasted economic payback of investment, technology trends and changes in government regulations and funding/tax-break legislation/rules in each geographical region, to derive estimated growth rates of quantity and price of each product subset in each application. These forecasted growth rates are combined with the estimated baseline data to obtain the long-range forecasts at the lowest detailed level of each product and application.

A full review of published information was also performed to supplement information obtained through interviews. The following sources were reviewed:

• Professional technical journals and papers
• Trade press articles
• Technical conference proceedings
• Product literature
• Company profile and financial information
• Additional information based on previous ElectroniCast market studies
• Personal knowledge of the research team.

In analyzing and forecasting the complexities of the American and other world region markets for light emitting diode products, it is essential that the market research team have a good and a deep understanding of the technology and of the industry. ElectroniCast members who participated in this report were qualified.

Bottom-up Methodology : ElectroniCast forecasts, as illustrated in the forecast data structure, are developed initially at the lowest detail level, then summed to successively higher levels. The background market research focuses on the amount of each type of product used in each application in the base year (2014), and the prices paid at the first transaction from the manufacturer. This forms the base year data.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary 1-1
1.1 Overview 1-1
1.2 Unpackaged and Packaged LEDs – Overview 1-18

2. LED-based Lamps used in Public Transit Vehicles Market Forecast by Vehicle Type 2-1
2.1 Overview 2-1
2.2 Public Transit Buses Market Forecast 2-79
2.3 Light-Rail and Tram/Trolley Market Forecast 2-88
2.4 Rapid-Transit/Metro, Subway/Underground Market Forecast 2-94
2.5 High-Speed, Commuter/Intercity, Long Distance Rail Market Forecast 2-97
2.6 Public Transit Ferries Market Forecast 2-101

3. LED-based Lamps in Public Transit Vehicles Market Forecast by Product Type 3-1
3.1 Overview 3-1
3.2 Public Transit Vehicles: LED Linear Tube Lamps 3-4
3.3 Public Transit Vehicles: LED-based BLU Bars used in Display Monitors 3-29
3.4 Public Transit Vehicles: LED Signage/Destination Sign Board Modules 3-40
3.5 Public Transit Vehicles: “Other” LED Lamps 3-52

4. Technology Trends and Analysis 4-1

5. Profile Briefs of LED and Related Companies -- Selected Competitors 5-1

6. ElectroniCast Market Research Methodology 6-1

7. Definitions - Acronyms, Abbreviations, and General Terms 7-1

8. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Data Base Explanation 8-1
8.1 Overview 8-1
8.2 Tutorial 8-4
ADD Excel Data Base Spreadsheets (Global Market Forecast
 Detailed Data: ASP ($, each); Quantity (Million); Value ($, Million) for all Regions
ADD Power Point Market Data Figures (Global Market Forecast

List of Tables

1.1.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Region ($Million) 1-3
1.1.2 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Region (Quantity/Units) 1-4
1.1.3 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle-Type ($Million) 1-5
1.1.4 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Product-Type ($Million) 1-12
1.1.5 Visible Light Communications 1-14
1.1.6 List of Applications for LED-Based Visible light Communication 1-15
1.2.1 Typical Luminous Efficacies for Traditional and LED Sources 1-27
2.1.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle-Type ($Million) 2-2
2.1.2 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle-Type (Quantity) 2-3
2.1.3 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 2-4
2.1.4 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 2-4
2.1.5 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle-Type ($Million) 2-5
2.1.6 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle-Type (Quantity) 2-5
2.1.7 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle-Type ($Million) 2-6
2.1.8 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle-Type (Quantity) 2-6
2.1.9 Train Producers 2-76
2.2.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Buses American Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-82
2.2.2 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Buses EMEA Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-84
2.2.3 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Buses APAC Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-84
2.2.4 List of Trolleybus Manufacturers 2-87
2.3.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit Light-Rail American Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-92
2.3.2 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Light -Rail EMEA Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-92
2.3.3 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Light-Rail APAC Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-93
2.4.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit Rapid/Metro American Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-95
2.4.2 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit Rapid/Metro EMEA Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-95
2.4.3 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit Rapid/Metro APAC Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-96
2.5.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit High-Speed/Commuter America, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-98
2.5.2 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit High-Speed/Commuter EMEA, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-98
2.5.3 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit High-Speed/Commuter APAC, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-99
2.6.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit Ferries America Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-106
2.6.2 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit Ferries EMEA Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-106
2.6.3 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit Ferries APAC Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-107
3.1.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Product-Type ($Million) 3-3
3.2.1 LED Linear Lamps in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle-Type ($Million) 3-9
3.2.2 LED Linear Lamps in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle-Type (Quantity) 3-10
3.2.3 LED Linear Lamps in Public Transportation Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-11
3.2.4 LED Linear Lamps in Public Transportation Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-11
3.2.5 LED Linear Lamps in Public Transportation Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle-Type ($Million) 3-12
3.2.6 LED Linear Lamps in Public Transportation Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle-Type (Quantity) 3-12
3.2.7 LED Linear Lamps in Public Transportation Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle-Type ($Million) 3-13
3.2.8 LED Linear Lamps in Public Transportation Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle-Type (Quantity) 3-13
3.2.9 DIP LED Manufacturing in China 3-18
3.2.10 LED-Packaging Designers and Manufacturers in Taiwan 3-20
3.3.1 LED: BLU Bars in LCDs in Public Transit Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle-Type ($Million) 3-35
3.3.2 LED: BLU Bars in LCDs in Public Transit Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle-Type (Quantity) 3-36
3.3.3 LED: BLU Bars in LCDs in Public Transportation Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-37
3.3.4 LED: BLU Bars in LCDs in Public Transportation Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-37
3.3.5 LED: BLU Bars in LCDs in Public Transportation Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-38
3.3.6 LED: BLU Bars in LCDs in Public Transportation Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-38
3.3.7 LED: BLU Bars in LCDs in Public Transportation Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-39
3.3.8 LED: BLU Bars in LCDs in Public Transportation Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-39
3.4.1 LED Signage/Destination Signs in Public Transit Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-47
3.4.2 LED Signage/Destination Signs in Public Transit Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-48
3.4.3 LED Signage/Destination Signs in Public Transit Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-49
3.4.4 LED Signage/Destination Signs in Public Transit Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-49
3.4.5 LED Signage/Destination Signs in Public Transit Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-50
3.4.6 LED Signage/Destination Signs in Public Transit Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-50
3.4.7 LED Signage/Destination Signs in Public Transit Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-51
3.4.8 LED Signage/Destination Signs in Public Transit Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-51
3.5.1 LED (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle ($ Million) 3-56
3.5.2 LED (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles Global Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-57
3.5.3 LED (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-58
3.5.4 LED (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles America Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-58
3.5.5 LED (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-59
3.5.6 LED (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles EMEA Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-59
3.5.7 LED (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle ($Million) 3-60
3.5.8 LED (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles APAC Forecast, By Vehicle (Quantity) 3-60
4.1 LED Color Variety – Selected Examples 4-11
4.2 LED Color Chart 4-13
8.1.1 ElectroniCast Market Forecast Database Vehicle (Application) Category Hierarchy List 8-2
8.1.2 ElectroniCast Market Forecast Database Product Category Hierarchy List 8-3

List of Figures

1.1.1 Product Life Cycle 1-16
1.2.1 Diagram of a typical LED chip 1-18
1.2.2 Diagram of a typical LED chip 1-19
1.2.3 LED Chip Cross-Sectional Structure 1-20
1.2.4 Chip On Glass Cross-Sectional Structure 1-21
1.2.5 ESD Protection Diodes 1-22
1.2.6 Electrostatic Discharge Example 1-23
1.2.7 Chip-on-Board LED Technology 1-24
1.2.8 Single-die LED: 1000 lm at 100 lm/W at 3A 1-27
1.2.9 Four-die LED with Primary Optics 1-28
1.2.10 LED Packaged Chip 1-29
1.2.11 LED Packaged Chip 1-29
1.2.12 LED Packaged Chip Surface Mount Variations 1-30
1.2.13 LED Packaged Chip 1-31
1.2.14 High Brightness LED Packaged Chip 1-32
2.1.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Vehicles Global Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-8
2.1.2 Fully illuminated Rail Car LED Reading and Down Lights 2-13
2.1.3 Fully Automated Transit System in Tokyo 2-15
2.1.4 Bay Area Rapid Transit Train Cars 2-17
2.1.5 Hybrid Electric Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Style 42-foot Buses 2-25
2.1.6 Eastern Asia High-Speed Rail 2-70
2.1.7 Shinkansen High-Speed Rail (Japan) 2-71
2.1.8 High Speed Rail / Rail Lines (South Korea) 2-72
2.1.9 High Speed Rail (Taiwan) 2-73
2.1.10 High Speed Rail (Europe) 2-74
2.1.11 United States - High Speed Rail Corridors 2-77
2.1.12 United States - High Speed Intercity Passenger Rail Program 2-78
2.2.1 Bus with LED-Based Destination Signage 2-80
2.2.2 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Buses Global Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-81
2.2.3 El Metropolitano BRT (Bus Rapid Transit): Lima, Peru 2-83
2.2.4 Electric Trolley Bus 2-86
2.3.1 Light Rail Vehicle 2-88
2.3.2 Light Rail Vehicle 2-89
2.3.3 Tram in France 2-90
2.3.4 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transportation Light-Rail Global Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-91
2.4.1 LED Lamps/Devices in Public Transit: Rapid/Metro Global Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-94
2.5.1 LED Lamps/Devices: Public Transit: High-Speed/Commuter Global Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($M) 2-97
2.6.1 LED Lamps/Devices: Public Transit: Ferries Global Forecast, Interior/Exterior ($Million) 2-101
2.6.2 Public Transit – Ferries 2-102
2.6.3 Public Transit - Water Bus 2-103
2.6.4 Public Transit – Fast Ferry (South Korea) 2-104
2.6.5 Public Transit – Ferries (New York) 2-105
3.2.1 LED Linear (Tube) Lamps Used in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast ($ Million) 3-6
3.2.2 LED Linear (Tube) Lamps Used in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast (Quantity/Units) 3-7
3.2.3 LED Linear (Tube) Lamps Used in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast (Average Price) 3-8
3.2.4 DIP T8 – Linear Tube Lamps With Plastic End-Caps 3-16
3.2.5 SMD T8 and T5 – LED Linear Tube Lamps With Plastic End-Caps 3-17
3.2.6 DIP-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Plastic End-Caps 3-21
3.2.7 DIP-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Metal End-Caps 3-22
3.2.8 SMD-Type LED Linear Tube Lamps with Metal End-Caps 3-23
3.2.9 SMD-Type High-Output LED Linear Tube Lamps with Plastic End-Caps 3-24
3.2.10 Chip-On-Board (COB) LED 3-25
3.3.1 LED: BLU Bars for LCDs Used in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Market Forecast ($ Million) 3-32
3.3.2 LED: BLU Bars for LCDs Used in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast (Quantity/Units) 3-33
3.3.3 LED: BLU Bars for LCDs Used in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast (Average Price) 3-34
3.4.1 LED-based Flip Dot Destination Signs on Bus 3-41
3.4.2 LED Destination Sign on Bus 3-42
3.4.3 Interior LED Destination/Information Sign 3-43
3.4.4 LED Signage/Destination Sign Modules in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast ($ Million) 3-44
3.4.5 LED Signage/Destination Sign Modules in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast (Quantity) 3-45
3.4.6 LED Signage/Destination Sign Modules in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast (Avg. Price) 3-46
3.5.1 LED Misc. (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast ($ Million) 3-52
3.5.2 LED Misc. (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast (Quantity/Units) 3-53
3.5.3 LED Misc. (Other) Lamps/Luminaries in Public Transit Vehicles Regional Forecast (Average Price) 3-54
3.5.4 Public Transit Bus: LED Stairwell Light 3-62
3.5.5.a Assorted LED Lighting Profile Devices: Amber and Red LED Combination Marker Light 3-63
3.5.5.b Assorted LED Lighting Profile Devices: White LED Vehicle Round Back-Up Light 3-63
3.5.5.c Assorted LED Lighting Profile Devices: LED Vehicle Rectangular Back-Up Light 3-64
3.5.5.d Assorted LED Lighting Profile Devices: LED 4" Round Stop, Turn and Tail Light 3-64
3.5.6 Federal (US) Lighting Location Requirements for Buses (Illustration: Front/Side and Rear View) 3-65
4.1 RPCVD Process Equipment 4-6
4.2 LED Chromatic Chart 4-12
4.3 Evolution of Research Emphasis During Technology Life Cycle 4-14
4.4 LED Chip: Metal Layer (Thin Film Technology) 4-20
4.5 Vertical LED Chip 4-21
4.6 AC LED Technology on a Wafer 4-22
4.7 Ultra High Bright LED Chip 4-23
4.8 LED Chip Design with Copper Alloy Thermal Conductivity 4-24
4.9 LED Chip Design – Sapphire vs. Copper Alloy 4-25
4.10 Ultra-Thin LED 4-27
4.11 Solid-State Lighting LED 4-28
4.12 LED Module with High Light Quality 4-29
4.13 LED Module with Low-Profile Rectangular Shape 4-30
4.14 Lumiramic Phosphor Technology: Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC) technology 4-33
4.15 Next-Generation Light Emitting Diode Module 4-40
4.16 4-Leaded RGB LED 4-42
4.17 Basic Structure of a Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diode 4-46
4.18 Vertically Conducting Advanced LED Structure 4-47
4.19 AlGaInP LED Efficacy 4-49
4.20 Red Nitride Phosphors 4-51
5.1 PCB Assembly 5-24
5.2 LED Backlit Display 5-27
5.3 Rugged Touch Screen with NVIS Capability 5-43
5.4 High Performance Materials used for Functional Parts in LED Luminaries 5-45
5.5 LED Down light with 102 Lumens per Watt Fixture 5-59
5.6 LED Lighting Military Solutions 5-61
5.7 LED Lighting in Railway Station 5-64
5.8 4-inch x 4.7-inch Round Light/Fixture 5-68
5.9 Dense Matrix LED / LED-Based Light Source 5-69
5.10 Silicone Encapsulant and Silicone Lens in LEDs 5-78
5.11 Silicone Products for LED Lamps 5-79
5.12 Silicone Products for LED Streetlamps 5-80
5.13 LED Technology Safelight Design 5-82
5.14 NVIS/LED Control Panel 5-89
5.15 Integrated Weapons Delivery System 5-90
5.16 Cockpit Modular Display/Panel 5-99
5.17 Cockpit Large Area Display 5-100
5.18 Traffic Lamp LED 5-107
5.19 High Power LED Lamp 5-108
5.20 Surface Mount Type LED 5-109
5.21 Surface Mount Type LED 5-113
5.22 Exterior Aircraft LED Lighting 5-117
5.23 LED/CCD Barcode Readers 5-133
5.24 Surface-Mount Multi-layer Ceramic Packages 5-138
5.25 LED Linear Optical Array 5-144
5.26 Solid-State NVIS Lamps 5-156
5.27 Nanostructures Designed for Different Color Emission 5-164
5.28 LED Array Lighting – Lamp 5-171
5.29 Light-Measurement Device 5-180
5.30 Solid-State Lighting (SSL) LED: Replacement for Halogen Lamp in Spotlights 5-187
5.31 Assorted LED Lighting Profile Devices 5-193
5.32 Federal Lighting Location Requirements for Buses 5-196
5.33 LED-Based Digital Billboard (Signage/Display) 5-208
5.34 Diagram of Backlight LED Drivers 5-211
5.35 Diagram of Multifunction Backlight LED Drivers 5-212
5.36 Diagram of White Backlight LED Drivers 5-213
5.37 Diagram White Backlight LED Drivers 5-214
5.38 Rotary Wing Aircraft Cockpit Display 5-216
5.39 Ultra-Thin LED 5-229
5.40 Quality Management System in LED Manufacturing 5-233
5.41 Military and Harsh-Environment LEDs 5-255
5.42 LED Street Lights 5-270
6.1 Market Research & Forecasting Methodology 6-3


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