LEDs in Night Vision Imaging System Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast

 Published On: Apr, 2015 |    No of Pages: 286 |  Published By: ElectroniCast Consultants | Format: PDF
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This is the ElectroniCast forecast of global market consumption of packaged light emitting diodes (LEDs), also known as component-level bulbs, used in Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) compatible lighting for non-civilian use, such as military, law enforcement, emergency medical services (EMS) and related.

A night vision device (NVD) comprises of an Infrared (IR) image intensifier tube in a rigid casing, commonly used by military forces and other non-civilian sectors; however, night vision technology has become more widely available for civilian use, for example, EVS, or enhanced vision systems are finding their way into private aircraft and vehicles. Infrared light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 0.7 and 300 micrometers, which equates to a frequency range between approximately 1 and 430 terahertz (THz).

Night vision goggles (NVG) combined with magnification lenses constitutes night vision binoculars. Other types include monocular night vision devices with only one eyepiece, which may be mounted to firearms as night sights. NVG and EVS technologies are becoming standard operating products on helicopter operations to improve safety. Light emitting diodes used in Night Vision Imaging Systems must provide an environment that will not have near infrared (NIR) noise, which would interfere with the nighttime sensitivity of the NVGs. It is important to note that night vision compatibility (NVC) is only achieved when the design of the lighting equipment allows for proper use with and without the NVIS, at night or during the day.

NVIS are passive systems, which have a very high sensitivity to radiation in the approximate region of 600nm to 930nm (orange to near infrared). The NVIS work by converting photons from the outside night scene onto a micro-displayed visible image. The NVIS will amplify the nighttime scene approximately 2000 times. To protect the image intensifier assembly, the systems are equipped with an automatic gain control (AGC), which will aperture down the NVIS when exposed to bright lights in the region of approximately 600nm to 930nm. If displays or light sources are not NVIS compatible, the automatic gain control will activate and the NVIS will become proportionally less sensitive to nighttime objects outside of the cockpit.

The Department of Defense (United States) published the MIL-STD-3009 Standard for lighting, aircraft, night vision imaging system compatibility, which specifies the interface and performance requirements for aircraft lighting and display equipment that is intended to be used along with NVIS. This specification defines aircraft interior lighting standards for sources such as cockpit displays and caution / warning lights, for both day and nighttime operating conditions. NVIS filters designed for avionic applications must incorporate NIR attenuation properties, chromaticity, contrast for daylight readability and often EMI/RFI shielding. The MIL-STD-3009 superseded MIL-L-85762A standard. This standard also includes provisions for white light sources and for “leaky green” requirements.

The light emitting diodes in a display heavily influence its color, contrast, and NVIS radiance (NR) properties. White, green, and red light emitting diodes with certain spectral emission can be adjusted with filters to produce displays that comply with various NVIS color coordinates and NVIS Radiance (NR) specifications described in MIL-STD-3009. Meeting both color and Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) Radiance limits can be challenging. Each application is unique and always involves certain constraints, such as space limitations or production methods, that may require a specific approach in order meet compliance.

Filters are ideal for many commercial and military applications, including crew-station displays for aircraft and ground vehicles, as well as portable display systems in personal digital assistants (PDA), palmtops, laptops, etc. Plastic Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) filters are the ideal method for making virtually any light source compatible with NVIS, NVG, NVD, or any other night-vision apparatus. Plastic filters are extremely durable. Where all-glass filters might fracture, lightweight plastic material survives the most demanding real-world environments.

Market Forecast and Analysis by Application The Night Vision Imaging System LED market is segmented into the following application categories:

• Military
-Aircraft
Cockpit / Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
Exterior Aircraft NVC Lighting
-Ships/Watercraft
Bridge Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
Exterior NVC Lighting
-Ground Vehicle
-Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
-Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
-Exterior NVC Lighting
-Ground Field Command / Man-Portable Devices / Other
Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
Exterior NVC Lighting

• Law Enforcement / EMS / Emergency Services / Other Non-Civilian
-Aircraft
Cockpit / Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
Exterior Aircraft NVC Lighting Aircraft
-Ships/Watercraft
Bridge Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
Exterior NVC Lighting
-Ground Vehicle
Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
Exterior NVC Lighting
-Ground Field Command / Man-Portable Devices / Other
Display Panel / Instrument Lighting
Other Interior Night Vision Compatible (NVC) Lighting
Exterior NVC Lighting

Quantitative Analysis LEDs face the challenge of creating definitive positions in the NVIS illumination market, as competing lighting solutions (technologies) are readily available and accepted. While this does not limit the potential success of LEDs, it does create some challenges. This report provides an independent examination and analysis of the changing market dynamics for LEDs used in selected end-use applications. The LED market forecast data are segmented by the following functions:

• Consumption Value (US$, million)
• Quantity (number/units)
• Average Selling Prices (ASP $, each)

Regional Segmentation The market data are segmented into the following geographic regions, plus a Global summary:

• America
United States of America
The Rest of the American Region (ROA)
• EMEA (Europe, Middle Eastern countries, plus Africa)
• APAC (Asia Pacific)

LED Level Quantified in the ElectroniCast Study A Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a solid-state semiconductor device that converts electrical energy directly into light. On its most basic level, the semiconductor is comprised of two regions. The p-region contains positive electrical charges while the n-region contains negative electrical charges. When voltage is applied and current begins to flow, the electrons move across the n region into the p region. The process of an electron moving through the p-n junction releases energy. The dispersion of this energy produces photons with visible wavelengths. Below, are four levels (or “food chain”) of LEDs. For the purposes of THIS ElectroniCast study, we quantify and provide a market forecast for “Level 2”

Level 1 - The chip or die
Level 2 - Packaged LED (component-level bulb)
Level 3 - LED array; may include optics, heat sink and/or power supply
Level 4 - LED luminaire

Ship/Watercraft Leads in Consumption The use of LEDs in Night Vision Imaging System compatible lighting will continue to be dominated by the Military market sector. The market forecast, by ElectroniCast Consultants, provides second-level (or sub-level) applications under the Military and the Law Enforcement/EMS application sectors. The next-level of detailed is provided in the report text, as well as in the Microsoft Excel database worksheets found in the addendum of the study report. During the forecast period, as the luminous efficacy techniques improve (Lumens per Watt: lm/W), the LED is being considered for more than (just) indicator lighting.
The conversion of interior lights in aircraft cockpits and cabins to meet MIL Specifications and civil CASA standards can involve the following conversion techniques, based on cost effectiveness and operational requirement:

• Replacement of instrument panel glass with filter material
• Installation of filter material to warning, caution and annunciator indicators
• Replacement of existing lamps with LED based modular lamps
• Installation of NVIS compatible bridge and bezel lighting
• NVG compatible floodlights

These same techniques are also used for the conversion of vehicle driving instruments, ships’ bridge, navigational and control lighting and communication equipment.

Exterior lighting for ships, aircraft and vehicles can be made Night Vision Goggles (NVG) friendly or dual mode Convert/NVG friendly through:

• Replacement of bulbs with form and fit compatible LEDs
• Installation of solid state LED based navigation and anti-collision lights
• Fitting filters to existing light fittings
• Addition of Infra Red LEDs for covert navigation and formation lights only visible through NVIS

This study is based on analysis of information obtained continually over the past several years, but updated through the end of March 2015. During this period, ElectroniCast analysts performed interviews with authoritative and representative individuals in the LED manufacturing (materials, chips, packaging, devices, associated parts/pieces, fittings/fixtures, NVIS filters) and military/aerospace, law enforcement, communication, automotive, emergency medical services, R&D, and government regulating authorities. The interviews were conducted principally with:

-Engineers, marketing personnel and management at manufacturers of LEDs as well as other technologies.
-Design group leaders, engineers, marketing personnel and market planners at major users and potential users of LEDs used in Night Vision Compatible Lighting applications.
-Other industry/sector experts, including those focused on standards activities, trade associations, and investments.

The interviews covered issues of technology, R&D support, pricing, contract size, reliability, documentation, installation/maintenance crafts, standards, supplier competition and other topics.

In analyzing and forecasting the complexities of the American and other world region markets for light emitting diode products, it is essential that the market research team have a good and a deep understanding of the technology and of the industry. ElectroniCast members who participated in this report were qualified.
Bottom-up Methodology ElectroniCast forecasts, as illustrated in the forecast data structure, are developed initially at the lowest detail level, then summed to successively higher levels. The background market research focuses on the amount of each type of product used in each application in the base year (2014), and the prices paid at the first transaction from the manufacturer. This forms the base year data.

ElectroniCast analysts then forecast the growth rates in component quantity use in each application, along with price trends, based on competitive, economic and technology forecast trends, and apply these to derive long term forecasts at the lowest application levels. The usage growth rate forecasts depend heavily on analysis of overall end user trends toward equipment usage and economic payback.

1. Executive Summary 1-1
1.1 LEDs in Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS)-Overview 1-1
1.2 Unpackaged and Packaged LEDs – Overview 1-15
2. LEDs in Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS)-Application Market Forecast 2-1
2.1 Overview 2-1
2.2 Market Forecast: Military Aircraft 2-23
2.3 Market Forecast: Military Ships/Watercraft 2-31
2.4 Market Forecast: Military Ground Vehicles (M-ATV and Others) 2-38
2.5 Market Forecast: Military Ground Field Command, Man-Portable 2-54
2.6 Market Forecast: Law Enforcement, Emergency Services Aircraft 2-62
2.7 Market Forecast: Law Enforcement, Emergency Services Ship/Watercraft 2-70
2.8 Market Forecast: Law Enforcement, Emergency Services Ground Vehicles 2-74
2.9 Market Forecast: Law Enforcement, Emergency Services Ground Field Command, Man-Portable 2-77
3. Military/Harsh Environments – Overview 3-1
4. LEDs – Technology Overview 4-1
5. ElectroniCast Market Research Methodology 5-1
6. Definitions and Standards 6-1
6.1 Definitions - Acronyms, Abbreviations and General Terms in General Lighting 6-1
6.2 Acronyms and Abbreviations in U.S. Army 6-73
6.3 Lighting Standards and Protocols/ Hazardous Location Lighting 6-80
7. ElectroniCast Market Forecast Data Base Explanation 7-1
7.1 Overview 7-1
7.2 Tutorial 7-3
ADDENDUM
Excel Data Base Spreadsheets (Global Market Forecast
-Detailed Data: ASP ($, each); Quantity (Million); Value ($, Million) for all Regions

List of Tables

1.1.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast, By Region ($Million) 1-5
1.1.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast, By Region (Quantity/Units) 1-6
1.1.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America Market Forecast ($Million) 1-7
1.1.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America Forecast (Quantity/Units) 1-7
1.1.5 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast, By Application ($Million) 1-10
1.2.1 Typical Luminous Efficacies for Traditional and LED Sources 1-22
2.1.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Market Forecast, By Application ($Million) 2-22
2.2.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Forecast, Military Aircraft ($Million) 2-26
2.2.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America, Military Aircraft ($Million) 2-26
2.2.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting EMEA Forecast, Military Aircraft ($Million) 2-27
2.2.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting APAC Forecast, Military Aircraft ($Million) 2-27
2.3.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Forecast, Military Ship/Watercraft ($Million) 2-31
2.3.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America, Military Ship/Watercraft 2-32
2.3.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting EMEA Forecast, Military Ship/Watercraft ($Million) 2-32
2.3.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting APAC Forecast, Military Ship/Watercraft ($Million) 2-33
2.4.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Forecast, Military Ground Vehicle ($Million) 2-46
2.4.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting USA and Rest of America, Military Ground Vehicle 2-47
2.4.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting EMEA Forecast, Military Ground Vehicle ($Million) 2-47
2.4.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting APAC Forecast, Military Ground Vehicle ($Million) 2-48
2.5.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global Forecast, Military Ground Command/Portable ($Million) 2-57
2.5.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Military Ground Command/Portable ($Million) 2-57
2.5.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA Forecast, Military Ground Command/Portable ($Million) 2-58
2.5.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC Forecast, Military Ground Command/Portable ($Million) 2-58
2.6.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Aircraft ($Million) 2-62
2.6.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Aircraft ($Million) 2-63
2.6.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Aircraft ($Million) 2-63
2.6.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Aircraft ($Million) 2-64
2.7.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ship/Watercraft 2-70
2.7.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ship/Watercraft 2-71
2.7.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ship/Watercraft 2-71
2.7.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ship/Watercraft 2-72
2.8.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Vehicle 2-74
2.8.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Vehicle 2-75
2.8.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Vehicle 2-75
2.8.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC Forecast, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Vehicle 2-76
2.9.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Global, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Command/Portable 2-77
2.9.2 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible USA and ROA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground/Portable 2-78
2.9.3 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible EMEA, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Command/Portable 2-78
2.9.4 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible APAC, Law Enforcement/Emergency Ground Command/Portable 2-79
3.1 ANSI/NFPA Areas Description 3-19
3.2 Selected Competitors: Explosion-Proof Lighting 3-23
4.1 LED Color Variety – Selected Examples 4-11
4.2 LED Color Chart 4-13
8.1.1 ElectroniCast Market Forecast and Analysis by Application 8-2

List of Figures

1.1.1 LEDs Used in NVIS Compatible Lighting Global Forecast, By Top-Level Application ($Million) 1-8
1.1.2 Chromaticity Limits for NVIS Colors, NVIS White and NVIS Blue 1-11
1.1.3 NVIS Response Curves 1-12
1.1.4 NVIS Colors Allowed in a “Class A” Cockpit 1-13
1.1.5 NVIS Colors: Type I Class B 1-14
1.2.1 Diagram of a Typical LED Chip 1-15
1.2.2 Diagram of a Typical LED Chip 1-16
1.2.3 LED Chip Cross-Sectional Structure 1-17
1.2.4 Chip On Glass Cross-Sectional Structure 1-18
1.2.5 ESD Protection Diodes 1-19
1.2.6 Electrostatic Discharge Example 1-20
1.2.7 Chip-on-Board LED Technology 1-21
1.2.8 Single-die LED: 1000 lm at 100 lm/W at 3A 1-24
1.2.9 Four-die LED with Primary Optics 1-25
1.2.10 Example of LED Packaged Chip (Component-Level) Bulb 1-26
1.2.11 Example of LED Packaged Chip (Component-Level) Bulb 1-26
1.2.12 Example of LED Packaged Chip (Component-Level Bulb) Surface Mount Variations 1-27
1.2.13 Example of LED Packaged Chip: Flux (Component-Level Bulb) 1-28
1.2.14 Example of High Brightness LED Packaged Chip (Component-Bulb) 1-29
2.1.1 Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) Computer and Display 2-7
2.1.2 TADS and PNVS Mounted on an Apache Helicopter 2-10
2.1.3 Rotary Wing Aircraft Cockpit Display 2-11
2.1.4 Long Range Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) 2-12
2.1.5 HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMS Prince of Wales (United Kingdom Aircraft Carriers) 2-14
2.1.6 Varyag Aircraft Carrier 2-15
2.1.7 USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) 2-16
2.1.8 Exterior Night Vision Compatible LED Military Solution (Example) 2-18
2.1.9 NVIS-Friendly Exterior Aircraft Lighting 2-19
2.1.10 LED Utility Cockpit Lights 2-20
2.2.1 MC-130W with NVG-Compatible Lighting Operational (Interior) 2-24
2.2.2 Line Drawing: NVIS General Area Floodlight for Aviation Use 2-25
2.3.1 LED-Base Wave-Off Light System for Aircraft Carriers 2-34
2.3.2 Helicopter Visual Approach System 2-35
2.4.1 Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) All Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV) 2-41
2.4.2 L-ATV (Light Combat Tactical All-Terrain Vehicle) 2-45
2.4.3 Military All Terrain Vehicle 2-50
2.4.4 Military Mine Protected Vehicle 2-51
2.4.5 Flyer (Next-Generation Vehicle) 2-53
2.7.1 Law Enforcement Watercraft (Source: USIA Marine) 2-73
3.1 Led Light Bar 50cm Cool White Rear Cable IP68 3-13
3.2 Explosion Proof LED Drop-Light/Trouble Light 3-22
3.3 Explosion Proof LED Signal/Warning Lights 3-23
4.1 RPCVD Process Equipment 4-6
4.2 LED Chromatic Chart 4-12
4.3 Evolution of Research Emphasis During Technology Life Cycle 4-14
4.4 LED Chip: Metal Layer (Thin Film Technology) 4-20
4.5 Vertical LED Chip 4-21
4.6 AC LED Technology on a Wafer 4-22
4.7 Ultra High Bright LED Chip 4-23
4.8 LED Chip Design with Copper Alloy Thermal Conductivity 4-24
4.9 LED Chip Design – Sapphire vs. Copper Alloy 4-25
4.10 Ultra-Thin LED 4-27
4.11 Solid-State Lighting LED 4-28
4.12 LED Module with High Light Quality 4-29
4.13 LED Module with Low-Profile Rectangular Shape 4-30
4.14 Lumiramic Phosphor Technology: Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC) technology 4-33
4.15 Next-Generation Light Emitting Diode Module 4-40
4.16 4-Leaded RGB LED 4-42
4.17 Basic Structure of a Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diode 4-46
4.18 Vertically Conducting Advanced LED Structure 4-47
4.19 AlGaInP LED Efficacy 4-49
4.20 Red Nitride Phosphors 4-51
5.1 ElectroniCast Market Research & Forecasting Methodology 5-3 


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