Barrier Layers for Flexible Electronics 2017-2027: Technologies, Markets, Forecasts

 Published On: Jun, 2017 |    No of Pages: 208 |  Published By: IDTechEx | Format: PDF
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The first examples of flexible consumer electronic devices are now a reality, and a large opportunity lies in developing them further:  devices in a flexible form factor that can operate without deterioration in performance, allowing them to be more robust, lightweight and versatile in their use and form factor is the end game . In order for products such as flexible displays and photovoltaics to be commercially successful, they must be robust enough to survive for the necessary time and conditions required of the device. This condition has been a limitation of many flexible, organic or printable electronics. This highlights the fact that beyond flexibility, printability and functionality, one of the most important requirements is robust encapsulation; this is a major challenge as many of the materials used in printed or organic electronic displays are chemically sensitive, and will react with many environmental components such as oxygen and moisture.
Plastic substrates and transparent flexible encapsulation barriers can be used, but these offer little protection to oxygen and water, resulting in the devices rapidly degrading. In order to achieve device lifetimes of tens of thousands of hours, water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) must be 10-6 g/m2/day, and oxygen transmission rates (OTR) must be < 10-3 cm3/m2/day. For Organic Photovoltaics, the required WVTR is not as stringent as OLEDs require but is still very high at a level of 10-5 g/m2/day. These transmission rates are several orders of magnitude smaller than what is possible using any conventional plastic substrate, and they can also be several orders of magnitude smaller than what can be measured using common equipment designed for this purpose.
This report from IDTechEx gives an in-depth review of the needs, emerging solutions and key players. It addresses specific topics such as:
-The choice device developers have to make is whether to follow the route of direct deposition of thin film encapsulation (TFE) or that of encapsulation with a pre-made barrier film, supplied by film producers. Each approach has its merits and drawbacks which are discussed in the report, along with which application spaces follow which approach and why. 
-Companies which are active in the development of high barrier films and their achievements on the field to date. The report covers a range of approaches in encapsulation, such as dyads, deposition of inorganic layers on plastic substrates and flexible glass.
-Depending on the deposition process utilized, different qualities of barrier are produced: PE CVD has been a proven technology that has been most commonly used to date, but an interest in ALD has been precipitating with many active projects looking into its incorporation in encapsulation solutions. Benefits and drawbacks are discussed in detail. 
-Surface smoothness and defects (such as cracks and pinholes) and the effect that these would have on the barrier behavior of the materials studied.
-Traditional methods of measurement of permeability are reaching the end of their abilities. The MOCON WVTR measurement device, which has been an industry standard, cannot give adequate measurements at the low levels of permeability required for technologies such as organic photovoltaics and OLEDs. Other methods of measurement and equipment developed are being discussed.
-Forecasts for displays, lighting and thin film photovoltaics (in terms of market value as well as area of barrier film sold into different verticals), in order to understand the influence that the development of flexible barriers would have at the mass deployment and adoption of these technologies.
-Detailed profiles and benchmarking of key technology developers, based in almost 10 years of IDTechEx research in the space for barrier layers. 
For those developing flexible electronics, seeking materials needs and opportunities, this is a must-read report.

1.1. Introduction to flexible encapsulation & barrier layers
1.2. The need for flexible encapsulation & barrier layers
1.3. Comparison of performance metrics for different encapsulation solutions
1.4. Comparison of performance metrics for different encapsulation solutions
2.1. Technology trends from major adopters - Samsung
2.2. Technology trends from major adopters - LG & others
2.3. Technology trends:TFE vs. barrier lamination
2.4. Technology trends: Single or multilayer - Substrate handling
2.5. Technology trends: The future of ALD in encapsulation
2.6. Technology trends: The future of ALD in encapsulation
2.7. Technology trends: plastics vs. flexible glass
2.8. Technology trends: plastics vs. flexible glass (2)
3.1. Barrier technology principles
3.2. Barrier key requirements
3.3. Barrier key requirements
3.4. Encapsulation: Dyads
4.1. Surface smoothness considerations
4.2. Porosity pinholes and cracks
4.3. Barrier properties as a function of  the thickness of the deposited film
4.4. Micro defects
4.5. Pinholes
4.6. Particles
4.7. Eliminating scratches and cracks
4.8. Resistance to scratching/cracking
4.9. Nano-defects
5.1. Vitex - The PML process
5.2. Vitex - Multilayers and dyads
5.3. The multilayer barrier and the Vitex flexible glass.
5.4. Vitex - Multilayers and dyads
5.5. Vitex - hybrid encapsulation and Samsung acquisition
5.6. GE - graded barrier
5.7. GE - graded barrier - Sabic acquisition
5.8. POLO - Fraunhofer
6.1. Advances in encapsulation manufacturing processes - ALD
6.2. R2R ALD
6.3. PECVD will compete head to head with ALD
7.1. Barrier adhesives
7.2. Barrier adhesives: 3M
7.3. Barrier adhesives: DELO - Henkel
7.4. Barrier adhesives: tesa
8.1. Addressable markets - Flexible OLED displays & lighting
8.2. Addressable markets - plastic rigid precede fully flexible OLED displays
8.3. Addressable markets: Quantum dot (QD) LCDs
8.4. Addressable markets: Integration approaches for QD LCDs
8.5. Addressable markets: quantum dot enhancement film
8.6. Addressable markets: OTFTs, LCDs and electrophoretic displays
8.7. Addressable markets: flexible photovoltaics
9.1. The potential significance of organic and printed inorganic electronics: flexibility, robustness & lower cost
9.2. Challenges with non rigid substrates
9.3. Inkjet printing for organic material deposition
9.4. ALD entering maturity in encapsulation applications
9.5. Application driven choice between in-line TFE and barrier film: Flexible PV and Quantum Dots
9.6. Barrier material forecasts 2017-2027 (sq. m)
9.7. Barrier revenues forecasts 2017-2027 ($ million)
10.1.1. Toppan Printing
10.1.2. Vitriflex
10.1.3. TNO Holst Centre
10.1.4. Mitsubishi
10.1.5. 3M
10.1.6. Amcor
10.1.7. Tera-Barrier Films
10.1.8. Fujifilm
10.1.9. UDC
10.1.10. Konica Minolta
10.1.11. Samsung
10.1.12. LG Display
10.1.13. Applied Materials
10.1.14. Meyer Burger Group
10.2. Flexible glass
10.2.1. Schott AG
10.2.2. Corning
10.2.3. Asahi Glass Company (AGC)
10.2.4. Nippon Electric Glass (NEG)
10.3. ALD deposition for flexible barriers
10.3.1. ALD deposition for flexible barriers
10.3.2. Lotus
10.3.3. Beneq
10.3.4. Encapsulix
11.1. The Calcium Test
11.2. MOCON
11.3. Vinci Technologies
11.4. SEMPA
11.5. VG Scienta
11.6. Fluorescent Tracers
11.7. Black Spot Analysis
11.8. Tritium Test
11.9. CEA
11.10. 3M
11.11. IMRE
11.12. Mass Spectroscopy - gas permeation (WVTR & OTR potential applications)
11.13. Kisco Uniglobe
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