Smart Transformers Market by Component (Converters, Switches, Transformers, Hardware for Transformer Monitoring), Type (Power, Distribution, Specialty, and Instrument), Application (Smart Grid, Traction Locomotive, Electric Vehicle Charging), and Region - Global Forecast to 2022

 Published On: Oct, 2017 |    No of Pages: 143 |  Published By: MarketsandMarkets | Format: PDF
Request Free Sample
The smart transformers market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 10.54%, from 2017 to 2022

The global smart transformers market is valued at USD 1.47 billion in 2017, and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 10.54%, from 2017 to 2022. The global market is set to a witness significant growth due to increasing emphasis on alternative energy production across the globe, digitalization of power utilities, and huge investments in smart grids and energy systems. Although some cost bearing constraints in the installation of smart transformers are being observed, emerging economies are expected to create better opportunities for the smart transformers market. Low acceptance level among end-users is expected to be a major challenge for the smart transformers market.

The smart grid segment is expected to have the largest market share by 2022

With regard to the end-use application segment, the smart grid segment is expected to constitute the largest market by 2022. One of the biggest uses of a smart transformer in smart grids is its role in integrating power from distributed generation into the main grid. Smart grids have two-way communication for real-time monitoring and controlling of network characteristics. For this, the basic step is the implementation of smart meters for end-user interactions, followed by employing smart transformers in the network to further strengthen communications and avoid power outages. Although smart grids prevent faults and power outages, they are also equipped with self-realization characteristic that allows the network to restore to normal, once the fault is cleared. Due to its application at various end-user points in the smart grid infrastructure, the segment is expected to dominate the market by 2022.

Asia Pacific: The fastest growing market for smart transformers

The smart transformers market is projected to grow faster in the Asia Pacific region, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. The Asia Pacific region is moving toward clean energy on a large scale to meet its growing energy needs in an efficient way. India, China, and Singapore are some of the potential growing markets in the power and utilities sector. Asia Pacific also offered the biggest potential gains for foreign direct investment and attracted 45% of all the capital investment, globally, in 2015. Increased investments in modernizing infrastructure and urbanizing populations, especially in developing economies, such as China and India, is expected to drive the smart transformers market in Asia Pacific. The Chinese market was, by far, the largest in the world in terms of infrastructure development in 2015. A rise in investments in smart grid technologies and smart cities that include distribution grid automation, smart meters, and demand response systems in countries, such as Japan, South Korea, and Australia would create opportunities for the smart transformers market.

Breakdown of Primaries:

In-depth interviews have been conducted with various key industry participants, subject-matter experts, C-level executives of key market players, and industry consultants, among other experts, to obtain and verify critical qualitative and quantitative information, as well as to assess future market prospects. The distribution of primary interviews is as follows:

• By Company Type: Tier 1- 43%, Tier 2- 33%, Tier 3- 24%
• By Designation: C-Level- 35%, Director Level- 25%, Others- 40%
• By Region: North America- 30%, Asia Pacific- 25%, Europe- 20%, Middle East & Africa- 15%, and South America- 5%

Note: Others includes sales managers, product managers, and design engineers

The tier of the company has been defined on the basis of its total revenue, as of 2013: Tier 1 = > USD 1 billion, Tier 2 = From USD 1 billion to USD 500 million, and Tier 3 = < USD 500 million

Some of the prominent players in the smart transformers market include ABB (Switzerland), Siemens (Germany), Schneider Electric (France), Eaton (Ireland), and General Electric (US).

Research Coverage:

The report defines, describes, and forecasts the global smart transformers market by component, type, application, and region. It also offers a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the market. The report provides a comprehensive review of the major market drivers, restraints, opportunities, challenges, winning imperatives, and key issues. It also covers various important aspects of the market.

Why buy this report?

1. The report identifies and addresses key markets for smart transformers, which would help suppliers review the growth in the demand for the product.
2. The report helps solution providers understand the pulse of the market and provides insights into drivers, restraints, and challenges.
3. The report will help key players understand the strategies of their competitors better and will help in making strategic decisions.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION 13
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 13
1.2 MARKET DEFINITION 13
1.3 MARKET SCOPE 14
1.3.1 MARKETS COVERED 14
1.3.2 YEARS CONSIDERED FOR THE STUDY 15
1.4 CURRENCY 15
1.5 LIMITATIONS 15
1.6 STAKEHOLDERS 16

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 17
2.1 RESEARCH DATA 17
2.1.1 SECONDARY DATA 18
2.1.1.1 Key data from secondary sources 18
2.1.2 PRIMARY DATA 19
2.1.2.1 Key data from primary sources 19
2.1.2.2 Key industry insights 20
2.1.2.3 Breakdown of primaries 20
2.2 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION 21
2.2.1 BOTTOM-UP APPROACH 21
2.2.2 TOP-DOWN APPROACH 22
2.3 MARKET BREAKDOWN & DATA TRIANGULATION 23
2.4 RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS 24

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 25

4 PREMIUM INSIGHTS 30
4.1 ATTRACTIVE OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, 2017–2022 30
4.2 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, BY REGION, 2016 31
4.3 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, BY TYPE, 2017 & 2022 31
4.4 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, BY APPLICATION, 2017 & 2022 32
4.5 ASIA PACIFIC SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE & BY COUNTRY 33

5 MARKET OVERVIEW 34
5.1 INTRODUCTION 34
5.2 EVOLUTION 35
5.3 MARKET DYNAMICS 36
5.3.1 DRIVERS 37
5.3.1.1 Increasing emphasis of alternate energy production across the globe 37
5.3.1.2 Digitalization of power utilities 38
5.3.1.3 Huge investments in smart grids and energy systems 38
5.3.2 RESTRAINTS 39
5.3.2.1 High initial cost incurred in the installation of smart transformers 39
5.3.3 OPPORTUNITIES 39
5.3.3.1 Growth of the electric vehicle market and the allied infrastructure 39
5.3.4 CHALLENGES 40
5.3.4.1 Lack of data for effective planning 40
5.3.4.2 Cyber security & data privacy 40

6 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, BY TYPE 41
6.1 INTRODUCTION 42
6.2 POWER TRANSFORMERS 43
6.3 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS 44
6.4 SPECIALTY TRANSFORMERS 45
6.5 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS 46

7 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, BY COMPONENT 47
7.1 INTRODUCTION 48
7.2 CONVERTERS 49
7.2.1 AC TO DC CONVERTERS 49
7.2.2 DC TO AC CONVERTERS 49
7.2.3 DC TO DC CONVERTERS 50
7.2.4 AC TO AC CONVERTERS 50
7.3 SWITCHES 50
7.3.1 SIC POWER MOSFETS 50
7.3.2 POWER DIODES 50
7.3.3 INSULATED GATE BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS (IGBTS) 51
7.3.4 SIC POWER THYRISTORS 51
7.4 TRANSFORMERS 51
7.5 HARDWARE FOR TRANSFORMER MONITORING 51
7.6 OTHERS 52
7.6.1 HIGH VOLTAGE INDUCTORS 52
7.6.2 HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORS 52
7.6.3 HIGH VOLTAGE RESISTORS 52

8 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, BY APPLICATION 53
8.1 INTRODUCTION 54
8.2 TRACTION LOCOMOTIVE 55
8.3 SMART GRID 56
8.4 ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING 57
8.5 OTHERS 58

9 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, BY REGION 59
9.1 INTRODUCTION 60
9.2 NORTH AMERICAN 62
9.2.1 US 65
9.2.2 CANADA 67
9.2.3 MEXICO 68
9.3 EUROPE 69
9.3.1 GERMANY 71
9.3.2 UK 73
9.3.3 FRANCE 74
9.3.4 REST OF EUROPE 75
9.4 ASIA PACIFIC 76
9.4.1 CHINA 79
9.4.2 INDIA 81
9.4.3 JAPAN 82
9.4.4 SOUTH KOREA 84
9.4.5 AUSTRALIA 85
9.4.6 REST OF ASIA PACIFIC 87
9.5 MIDDLE EAST 88
9.5.1 REST OF THE MIDDLE EAST 90
9.5.2 SOUTH AMERICA 91
9.5.3 AFRICA 93

10 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE 95
10.1 INTRODUCTION 95
10.2 MARKET RANKING, SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, 2016 96
10.3 COMPETITIVE SITUATION & TRENDS 96

11 COMPANY PROFILES 98 (Overview, Strength Of Product Portfolio, Business Strategy Excellence, Recent Developments, MnM View)*
11.1 ABB 98
11.2 SIEMENS 103
11.3 SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC 107
11.4 EATON 110
11.5 GE 113
11.6 WILSON TRANSFORMER 117
11.7 MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC 119
11.8 BHEL 122
11.9 CG POWER 125
11.10 GRIDCO 129
11.11 HOWARD INDUSTRIES 131
11.12 SPX TRANSFORMER 133

*Details on Overview, Strength of Product Portfolio, Business Strategy Excellence, Recent Developments, MnM View Might Not Be Captured in Case of Unlisted Companies.

12 APPENDIX 135
12.1 INSIGHTS OF INDUSTRY EXPERTS 135
12.2 DISCUSSION GUIDE 136
12.3 KNOWLEDGE STORE: MARKETSANDMARKETS’ SUBSCRIPTION PORTAL 137
12.4 INTRODUCING RT: REAL TIME MARKET INTELLIGENCE 139
12.5 AVAILABLE CUSTOMIZATIONS 140
12.6 RELATED REPORTS 140
12.7 AUTHOR DETAILS 141

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 SMART TRANSFORMER VS. TRADITIONAL TRANSFORMER 25
TABLE 2 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SNAPSHOT 26
TABLE 3 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL & SMART GRIDS 34
TABLE 4 CHALLENGES FOR TRANSFORMER OWNERS/OPERATORS 35
TABLE 5 KEY SMART GRID INVESTMENT INITIATIVES 38
TABLE 6 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 42
TABLE 7 POWER TRANSFORMERS: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 43
TABLE 8 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 44
TABLE 9 SPECIALTY TRANSFORMERS: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 45
TABLE 10 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 46
TABLE 11 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COMPONENT, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 49
TABLE 12 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 54
TABLE 13 TRACTION LOCOMOTIVE: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 55
TABLE 14 SMART GRID: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 56
TABLE 15 SMART GRID: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY (TOP 5 COUNTRIES), 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 56
TABLE 16 ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 57
TABLE 17 OTHERS: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 58
TABLE 18 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 61
TABLE 19 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY (TOP 5 COUNTRIES), 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 62
TABLE 20 NORTH AMERICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 64
TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 64
TABLE 22 NORTH AMERICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 65
TABLE 23 US: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 66
TABLE 24 US: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 66
TABLE 25 CANADA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 67
TABLE 26 CANADA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 68
TABLE 27 MEXICO: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 68
TABLE 28 MEXICO: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD THOUSAND) 69
TABLE 29 EUROPE: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 70
TABLE 30 EUROPE: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 70
TABLE 31 EUROPE: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 71
TABLE 32 GERMANY: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 72
TABLE 33 GERMANY: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 72
TABLE 34 UK: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 73
TABLE 35 UK: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 73
TABLE 36 FRANCE: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 74
TABLE 37 FRANCE: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 75
TABLE 38 REST OF EUROPE: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 75
TABLE 39 REST OF EUROPE: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 76
TABLE 40 ASIA PACIFIC: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 78
TABLE 41 ASIA PACIFIC: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 78
TABLE 42 ASIA PACIFIC: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 79
TABLE 43 CHINA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 80
TABLE 44 CHINA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 80
TABLE 45 INDIA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 81
TABLE 46 INDIA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD THOUSAND) 82
TABLE 47 JAPAN: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 83
TABLE 48 JAPAN: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 83
TABLE 49 SOUTH KOREA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 84
TABLE 50 SOUTH KOREA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 85
TABLE 51 AUSTRALIA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 86
TABLE 52 AUSTRALIA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 86
TABLE 53 REST OF ASIA PACIFIC: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 87
TABLE 54 REST OF ASIA PACIFIC: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 87
TABLE 55 MIDDLE EAST: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 88
TABLE 56 MIDDLE EAST: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 89
TABLE 57 MIDDLE EAST: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 89
TABLE 58 REST OF THE MIDDLE EAST: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 90
TABLE 59 REST OF THE MIDDLE EAST: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 90
TABLE 60 SOUTH AMERICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 91
TABLE 61 SOUTH AMERICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 92
TABLE 62 SOUTH AMERICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 92
TABLE 63 AFRICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY TYPE, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 93
TABLE 64 AFRICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 94
TABLE 65 AFRICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE, BY COUNTRY, 2015–2022 (USD MILLION) 94

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 SMART TRANSFORMER: RESEARCH DESIGN 17
FIGURE 2 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY: BOTTOM-UP APPROACH 21
FIGURE 3 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY: TOP-DOWN APPROACH 22
FIGURE 4 DATA TRIANGULATION METHODOLOGY 23
FIGURE 5 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY 24
FIGURE 6 ASIA PACIFIC HELD THE LARGEST MARKET SIZE BY VALUE IN THE SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET IN 2016 27
FIGURE 7 THE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER IS EXPECTED TO GROW AT THE HIGHEST CAGR DURING THE FORECAST PERIOD 28
FIGURE 8 THE SMART GRID SEGMENT IS EXPECTED TO DOMINATE THE SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET DURING THE FORECAST PERIOD 28
FIGURE 9 THE CONVERTERS SEGMENT IS EXPECTED TO GROW AT THE HIGHEST CAGR DURING THE FORECAST PERIOD 29
FIGURE 10 DIGITALIZATION OF POWER UTILITIES IS EXPECTED TO DRIVE THE SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET DURING THE FORECAST PERIOD 30
FIGURE 11 THE ASIA PACIFIC MARKET HELD THE LARGEST SHARE IN 2016 31
FIGURE 12 THE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER SEGMENT IS EXPECTED TO GROW AT THE HIGHEST CAGR DURING THE FORECAST PERIOD 31
FIGURE 13 THE SMART GRID IS EXPECTED TO LEAD THE SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET DURING THE FORECAST PERIOD 32
FIGURE 14 THE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER, BY TYPE & CHINA, BY COUNTRY, HELD THE MAXIMUM SHARE IN THE ASIAN SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET IN 2016 33
FIGURE 15 DIGITALIZATION OF POWER UTILITIES IS EXPECTED TO DRIVE THE SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET DURING THE FORECAST PERIOD 36
FIGURE 16 TOTAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CAPACITY 37
FIGURE 17 MOVING TOWARD SMART POWER DISTRIBUTION 39
FIGURE 18 SMART DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS SEGMENT IS EXPECTED TO HOLD THE LARGEST MARKET SIZE BY 2022 42
FIGURE 19 TRANSFORMERS SEGMENT IS EXPECTED TO ACCOUNT FOR THE LARGEST MARKET SIZE BY 2022 48
FIGURE 20 SMART GRID APPLICATION IS EXPECTED TO HOLD THE LARGEST MARKET SIZE BY 2022 54
FIGURE 21 REGIONAL SNAPSHOT: THE MARKET IN ASIA PACIFIC IS EXPECTED TO GROW AT THE HIGHEST CAGR DURING THE FORECAST PERIOD 60
FIGURE 22 SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SIZE (VALUE), BY REGION, 2016 61
FIGURE 23 NORTH AMERICA: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SNAPSHOT 63
FIGURE 24 ASIA PACIFIC: SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET SNAPSHOT 77
FIGURE 25 COMPANIES ADOPTED CONTRACTS & AGREEMENTS TO CAPTURE A SHARE OF THE MARKET, 2014–2017 95
FIGURE 26 MARKET RANKING, SMART TRANSFORMERS MARKET, 2016 96
FIGURE 27 BATTLE FOR MARKET SHARE: CONTRACTS & AGREEMENTS WAS THE KEY STRATEGY, 2014–2017 96
FIGURE 28 MARKET EVALUATION FRAMEWORK: NEW PRODUCT LAUNCHES, MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS, PARTNERSHIPS, CONTRACTS & AGREEMENTS, & OTHERS FUELED THE GROWTH OF THE COMPANIES FROM 2014–2017 97
FIGURE 29 ABB: COMPANY SNAPSHOT 98
FIGURE 30 SIEMENS : COMPANY SNAPSHOT 103
FIGURE 31 SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC : COMPANY SNAPSHOT 107
FIGURE 32 EATON : COMPANY SNAPSHOT 110
FIGURE 33 GE: COMPANY SNAPSHOT 113
FIGURE 34 MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC : COMPANY SNAPSHOT 119
FIGURE 35 BHEL: COMPANY SNAPSHOT 122
FIGURE 36 CG POWER : COMPANY SNAPSHOT 125

If the above report does not have the information suitable for your business, we can provide custom research that can be lucrative for your business or enhance your profession.