Waste Management

 Published On: May, 2015 |  Published By: Key Note | Format: PDF
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This Key Note Market Report analyses the waste management industry in the UK. The report is primarily concerned with the collection, treatment and disposal of waste generated in the UK.

The activities discussed in this report are covered by National Statistics’ 2007 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) under code 38, which includes the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste materials. It also includes the hauling of waste materials and the operation of material recovery facilities. SIC code 38 is divided into the following:
• 38.1 — waste collection: including the collection of hazardous and non-hazardous waste, such as waste from households and businesses, used batteries, used cooking oils and fats, waste oil from ships and used oil from garages, and construction and demolition waste
• 38.2 — waste treatment and disposal: covering the treatment and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Examples include organic waste, toxic live/dead animals and other contaminated waste, transition radioactive waste, dumping of refuse on land or in water, used goods, such as refrigerators, disposal of waste by incineration or combustion, and waste incineration processes.

Activities under SIC code 38.3 (covering materials recovery, involving the dismantling of wrecks and the recovery of sorted materials) are excluded from this report. They are covered separately in Key Note’s Metal Recycling and Non-Metal Recycling Market Reports.

For the purpose of this report, the UK waste management industry will be divided into the following sectors:

Sources of Waste (Arisings)
The major sources of waste can be divided into the following categories:
• Industrial waste — refers to factory waste and waste from premises occupied by an organisation engaged in industrial processes, such as manufacturing, chemical, power and production plants.
• Commercial waste — waste from premises used entirely or mainly for the purpose of a trade or business, or for the purpose of sport, recreation or entertainment.
• Municipal waste — predominantly household waste, including waste from kerbside collections, bulky waste collection, litter collection, household clinical waste collection and separate garden waste collection, waste from civic amenity sites (such as household furniture, household appliances, garden waste and other general waste), and bring/drop-off schemes.

Hazardous Waste
Some types of waste are harmful to human and animal health, or to the environment, either immediately or over an extended period of time. Disposal and treatment of these types of waste are subject to the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC (WFD). The WFD provides a Europe-wide definition of hazardous wastes, and outlines the correct management and regulation of such waste. The WFD also includes the European Waste Catalogue (EWC), which classifies waste materials and categorises both hazardous and non-hazardous waste and how they were produced. The treatment and disposal of electric and electronic goods is regulated through the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and end-of-life vehicles by End of Life Vehicles (ELVs) Directives.

Methods of Waste Treatment and Disposal
As well as providing the legislative framework for the collection, transportation, recovery and disposal of waste, the WFD requires EU Member States to follow a waste management hierarchy in the following order: prevention; preparing for re-use; recycling; other recovery; and disposal. The waste hierarchy was transposed into UK law through the Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2011. All businesses or organisations that produce or handle waste are required to apply the waste hierarchy when transferring waste.

Waste treatment and disposal methods used in the UK include the following:

Landfill is the disposal of significant volumes of waste into or onto land. When waste is received at landfill sites, it is compacted and covered to prevent odour, litter and pest infestations, and will then be gradually decomposed by microbes. In the UK, the Environment Agency (EA) licences and regulates landfills to ensure they only take appropriate waste, in regard to their operating licence, and that they are located in an area which has the least impact on the environment.

The UK and other EU countries have agreed to reduce the volume of waste going to landfill. The basis of this agreement is the EU Landfill Directive, which outlines challenging targets for EU countries to reduce the amount of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) being sent to landfill. The Landfill Directive restricts waste input to landfill by banning certain waste from all landfill and by applying waste acceptance criteria to the different types of rubbish. The Landfill Tax provides the incentive needed to reduce the amount of BMW going into landfill.

Composting is the biological decomposition and stabilisation of biodegradable waste under controlled conditions that results in sanitised material. This method can be applied to the land to aide agriculture, horticulture or ecological improvement.

Incineration (or thermal treatment), is the combustion of waste without the recovery of energy. As such, it is considered a form of waste disposable similar to landfill as it involves the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs), and is therefore given the lowest priority within the framework of the waste hierarchy. There are a number of incinerators in the UK that are disposal-only plants, which burn waste to reduce its volume. This method is regulated through the Waste Incineration Directive, which aims to prevent or limit negative effects on the environment, in particular pollution by emissions into the air, soil, surface and groundwater, and the resulting risks to human health. The Directive achieves this by requiring stringent operational conditions, technical requirements and emission limit values for plants incinerating and co-incinerating waste across the EU.

Energy Recovery
Energy recovery from waste is similar to incineration; however, the energy released from the combustion process can be recovered and used in the generation of heat and/or electricity. A number of processes can be used to generate energy from waste combustion, including Energy from Waste (EfW), pyrolysis (the decomposition of organic waste matter); and gasification (the conversion of materials high in carbon into carbon monoxide [CO], hydrogen [H] and carbon dioxide [CO2]. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is also considered a form of energy recovery from waste, as some or all of the by-product heat produced in the generation of electricity is reused for heating purposes.

Structure for Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal
There are certain structures in place to deal with the collection, treatment and disposal of waste.

Waste Collection Authorities
Waste collection authorities (WCAs) are local authorities responsible for the collection of municipal waste within a particular region. Generally, the waste is then passed onto a waste disposal authority (WDA) for proper treatment or disposal.

Waste Disposal Authorities
Established in the UK following the Environmental Protection Act 1990, WDAs are responsible for facilitating the disposal of household waste collected by local councils. Major WDAS include: the Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority (GMWDA); the Merseyside Waste Disposal Authority (MWDA), and waste authorities in Greater London.

Introduction & Definition 1
Sources of Waste (Arisings).......1
Hazardous Waste..2
Methods of Waste Treatment and Disposal2
Energy Recovery....3
Structure for Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal..........3
Waste Collection Authorities....3
Waste Disposal Authorities.......4
1. Executive Summary 5
2. What’s KEY in the Market? 6
KEY DRIVERS........6
EU Waste Framework Directive ..........6
Landfill Tax..7
Zero Waste..7
Local Authority Budget Cuts.....7
Table 2.1: UK Economic Trends (000, £m, %, million and £), 2010-2014......8
3. Market Size, Segmentation & Forecasts 12
The Total Market12
By Value ....12
Table 3.1: The Total UK Waste Management Market by Value (£m), 2010-201412
By Volume.13
Table 3.2: Total Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Waste Arisings in the UK by Sector by Volume (000 tonnes and %), 2012.........14
Table 3.3: Total Municipal Waste Arisings in England by Volume (000 tonnes),2009/2010-2013/2014.....15
Figure 3.3: Total Municipal Waste Arisings in England by Volume (000 tonnes), 2009/2010-2013/2014...17
Table 3.4: Total Municipal Waste Arisings in England by Volume Share (%),
Table 3.5: Waste Management of Municipal Waste in England by Volume (000 tonnes and %), 2009/2010-2013/2014.19
Table 3.6: Total Municipal Waste Arisings in Wales by Volume (000 tonnes),2012/2013-2013/2014.....20
Figure 3.4: Total Municipal Waste Arisings in Wales by Volume (000 tonnes),2012/2013-2013/2014.....21
Table 3.7: Total Municipal Waste Arisings in Wales by Volume Share (%), 2012/2013 and 2013/2014.....22
Table 3.8: Waste Management of Municipal Waste in Wales by Volume (000 tonnes and %), 2012/2013 and 2013/2014....23
Scotland ....23
Table 3.9: Total Household Waste Arisings in Scotland by Volume (tonnes and %),2012 and 2013.....24
Table 3.10: Waste Management of Household Waste in Scotland by Volume (tonnes and %), 2012 and 2013..........25
Northern Ireland.25
Table 3.11: Total Municipal Waste Arisings in Northern Ireland by Volume (000 tonnes), 2009/2010-2012/2014..26
Table 3.12: Waste Management of Municipal Waste in Northern Ireland by Volume (000 tonnes and %), 2009/2010-2013/201426
Figure 3.5: Waste Management of Municipal Waste in Northern Ireland by Volume Share (%), 2013/2014....27
Table 3.13: Municipal Waste Arisings in the UK by Region by Volume (000 tonnes and %), 2013/2014.........27
Table 3.14: Waste Generation from Non-Municipal Sources in the UK by Sector By Volume (000 tonnes), 2012.....29
Future Trends.......29
Recycling Rates Expected to Rise......29
Technological Developments in Waste Management ..30
Future Economic Trends..........30
Table 3.15: Economic Forecasts (000, % and million), 2015-2019.....31
Forecast Total Market...31
Table 3.16: The Forecast Total UK Waste Management Market by Value (£m), 2015-2019........31
Figure 3.6: The Forecast Total UK Waste Management Market by Value (£m), 2010-2019........32
4. International Perspective 33
Municipal Waste Generation..34
Table 4.1: Municipal Waste Generated in the EU by Country (kilograms per capita), 2009-2013....34
Municipal Waste Landfilled....35
Table 4.2: Municipal Waste Landfilled in the EU by Country (kilograms per capita), 2009-2013..36
Municipal Waste Incinerated..37
Table 4.3: Municipal Waste Incinerated in the EU by Country (kilograms per capita), 2009-2013....37
5. Competitor Analysis 39
Table 5.1: Top Waste Management Companies in the UK by Turnover (£000), Latest
Financial Year......39
Veolia Environmental Services (UK) PLC.....40
Table 5.2: Financial Results for Veolia Environmental Services (UK) PLC (£000), Years Ending 31st December 2010-2013....40
Biffa Group Ltd....41
Table 5.3: Financial Results for Biffa Group Ltd (£000), Years Ending 2nd April 2010,
1st April 2011, 30th March 2012, 29th March 2013 and 28th March 201441
Shanks Group PLC..........42
Table 5.4: Financial Results for Shanks Group PLC (£000), Years Ending 31st March 2010-201442
FCC Environment (UK) Ltd.......43
Table 5.5: Financial Results for FCC Environment (UK) Ltd (£000), Years Ending 31st December 2009-2013.......43
Viridor Waste Management Ltd.......44
Table 5.6: Financial Results for Viridor Waste Management Ltd (£000), Years Ending 31st March 2010-2014...45
SITA UK Ltd..........45
Table 5.7: Financial Results for SITA UK Ltd (£000),
Years Ending 31st December 2009-2013....46
Cory Environmental Ltd46
Table 5.8: Financial Results for Cory Environmental Ltd (£000), Years Ending
31st December 2009-2013.......47
Grundon Waste Management Ltd....47
LondonWaste Ltd ..........47
By Turnover..........48
Table 5.9: Number of UK VAT- and/or PAYE-Based Enterprises Engaged in Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal by Turnover Sizeband (£000, number and %),2014.48
By Employment....48
Table 5.10: Number of UK VAT- and/or PAYE-Based Enterprises Engaged in Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal by Employment Sizeband (number and %),2014.49
Regional Variation in the Marketplace......49
Table 5.11: Number of UK VAT- and/or PAYE-Based Enterprises Engaged in Waste
Collection, Treatment and Disposal by Region (number and %), 2014......50
6. Buying Behaviour 52
Table 6.1: Municipal Waste Recycled by Local Authorities in England by Material (000 tonnes), 2010/2011-2013/2014...52
7. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats 53
8. PESTEL 55
New Waste Legislation.55
Political Uncertainty for Waste Management Industry 55
ECONOMIC ........55
SOCIAL .....56
A Circular Economy ......56
New Waste Management Technologies.....56
Climate Change...57
The EU Waste Framework Directive.57
The Landfill Directive....57
Hazardous Waste Directive.....58
End-of-Life Vehicle Directive..58
WEEE and RoHS...58
Other Legislation58
9. Further Sources 59
Government Publications ...59
Other Sources....60
Key Note Research 61
The Key Note Range of Reports 62 

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