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With its rapidly increasing economy, population and power demands, China is aggressively developing nuclear power to meet its future needs.
China is on a nuclear power growth spree, with plans to build three times as many nuclear power plants in the coming decade as the rest of the world combined. This report analyzes the growth of China’s nuclear energy industry. It analyzes the history of China’s nuclear industry, explores the uranium fuel industry in China.
China’s nuclear power industry - with 11 reactors operating and construction starting on as many as an additional 10 each year - is not known to have had a serious accident in 15 years of large-scale electricity production.
The United States produces the most nuclear energy, with nuclear power providing 19% of the electricity it consumes, while France produces the highest percentage of its electrical energy from nuclear reactors. In the European Union as a whole, nuclear energy provides 30% of the electricity. Nuclear energy policy differs between European Union countries, and some, such as Austria, Estonia, and Ireland, have no active nuclear power stations. In comparison, France has a large number of these plants, with 16 multi-unit stations in current use.
Table of Contents :Executive Summary 5
Introduction to Nuclear Power 6 History 6 Fission Reactor 9 Developing Technologies 39 Parts of a Nuclear Power Plant 58 Dealing with Radioactive Waste 76
Industry Overview 80 Market for Uranium 80 Dealing with Nuclear Fuel Costs 81 Costing Patterns 81 Trends in the Industry 83 Economic Trends 84 Analysis of Nuclear Hedging 87 Cost Competitive of Nuclear Power 87 Cost Efficiency Issues 90 Nuclear Power and the Deregulated Electricity Market 93 Impact of Electricity Deregulation on Nuclear Power Plants 94 Outlook for Nuclear Power 97
Issues Facing Nuclear Power 99 Air Pollution 99 Water Pollution 101 Health Impacts 101 Cost Issues 103 Safety Issues 104 Nuclear Proliferation 110 Others 112 The Price-Anderson Act 113 Resolution of the Nation’s Spent Nuclear Fuel Issues 114 Education and Training of a New Generation of Engineers, Scientists, and Technicians 115 Public Acceptance and Understanding 117 Non-Proliferation Implications of New Nuclear Generation 117
Overview of China’s Nuclear Industry 122 Market Overview 122 Major Developments 122 Uranium Fuel Cycle 128 Regulations Impacting the Industry 128 Non-Proliferation 131 Research & Development 138
Nuclear Power Plants in China (Existing & Proposed) 141 Dafan Nuclear Power Plant 141 Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant 141 Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant 143 Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant 143 Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant 143 Jingyu Nuclear Power Plant 144 Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plant 145 Ningde Nuclear Power Plant 145 Pengze Nuclear Power Plant 145 Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant 146 Sanmen Nuclear Power Plant 146 Shidaowan HTR-PM Nuclear Power Plant 147 Taishan Nuclear Power Plant 148 Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant 149 Tianwan Phases II & III Nuclear Power Plant 149 Yangjiang Nuclear Power Plant 150 Yianjiashan/Wanan Nuclear Power Plant 150
Analysis of China’s Uranium Fuel Cycle 151 Overview 151 Uranium Mining 151 Fuel Production 154 Enrichment of Uranium 156 Fuel Reprocessing 158 Managing of Nuclear Waste 158
Major Players in the Industry 160 Areva DongFang 160 China Atomic Energy Authority 160 China Baotau Nuclear Fuel 160 China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group 160 China Huaneng Group 162 China Jianzhong Nuclear Fuel 162 China National Nuclear Corporation 162 China North Nuclear Fuel 162 China Nuclear Energy Association 163 China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation 164 China Uranium Development 164 Chinergy 164 Chinese Nuclear Society 164 Huadian International Power Corporation Ltd 164 Huaneng International Power Development Corporation 164 National Nuclear Safety Administration 166 Nuclear Power Institute of China 166 Shandong Nuclear Power Equipment Manufacturing 166 Shenzhen Shandong Nuclear Power Construction 167 Sinosteel 168 State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation 168
Future of the Industry 169
Appendix 171 Nuclear Trade and Industry Organizations 171 Regulators and Regulations for the Nuclear Industry 175 Nuclear Research Centers 179
List of Figures & Tables
Figure 1: Pressurized Water Reactor 10 Figure 2: Pressurized Water Reactor Vessel 15 Figure 3: Boiling Water Reactor 22 Figure 4: Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor 26 Figure 5: Process depicting Nuclear Fuel Cycle 59 Figure 6: A Control Rod Assembly 65 Figure 7: A Steel Pressure Vessel 67 Figure 8: Sources of Nuclear Waste 77 Figure 9: U3O8 Spot Market Price 82 Figure 10: Procedure of Application and Issuing of Licenses 132
Table 1: Operating Uranium Mines 151