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Over the next decade, fuel cell demand is expected to increase due to high petroleum prices, dependence on foreign oil, and continued environmental concerns. Fuel cells have potential in space and military applications, transportation, stationary uses, utility scale application, and in ortable products. Different types of fuel cells are suited for different applications.
This report examines emerging fuel cell technologies, including water fuel cells, regenerative fuel cells, stationary fuel cells, and more. Due to the advancements made in technology, new fuel cell types are rapidly being developed, and this report is a comprehensive guide to understanding these new fuel cells along with their various applications.
Aerospace and motor vehicle fuel cell applications are projected to grow rapidly through 2013, according to research from Energy Business Reports. The portable electronics market is expected to report the strongest advances through 2020. PEM fuel cells, which operate at low temperature and offer high energy densities, are projected to maintain their dominant market position through 2014. Use of fuel cells in portable electronics and power generation applications is expected to increase rapidly and to stimulate demand for DMFCs. In the near term.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts a source fuel into an electric current. It generates electricity inside a cell through reactions between a fuel and an oxidant, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte. The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it. Fuel cells can operate continuously as long as the necessary reactant and oxidant flows are maintained.
Fuel cells are different from conventional electrochemical cell batteries in that they consume reactant from an external source, which must be replenished – a thermodynamically open system. By contrast, batteries store electrical energy chemically and hence represent a thermodynamically closed system.
Table of Contents :Fuel Cells: Catalysts of the Clean Technology Revolution 10
Section 1: Industry Overview 18
History of Fuel Cells 19
Industry Challenges 21Cost 21Endurance and Reliability 22Onboard Storage 23System Size 23Fuel Flexibility 23Air, Thermal, and Water Management 24Hydrogen Availability 25Performance 25System Integration 26Improved Heat Recovery Systems 26Safety Concerns 27Lack of Innovative Technical Development 27Public Acceptance 28Transportation Application Challenges 28Compressor/Expandor Technologies 28Thermal and Water Management Technologies 28Physical and Chemical Sensors 28Geographical Trends 29Major Regions of Manufacturing 29Emergence of New Manufacturing Regions 30Emphasis on Core Countries of Production 33
Standards and Regulations 35Determining Quality Standards for Fuel Cells 35Regulatory Issues 39
R&D and Investing 41R&D Spending 41Fuel Cells VC and Public Market Investment 43Fuel Cell Stocks Performance 47
Market Forecast 48Role of Fuel Cells in Future Cars 50
Section 2: Understanding Fuel Cell Technology 52
How Fuel Cells Work 53Parts of a Fuel Cell 55Membrane Electrode Assembly 55Catalyst 56Hardware 56Shin‐Etsu Polymer Reduces Cost of Fuel Cell Separator 58
Types of Fuel Cells 59Alkaline 59Direct Methanol 60Fuel Cells Minus Membranes 62Metal‐Air "Fuel Cells" 63Molten Carbonate 64Phosphoric Acid (PAFC) 66Polymer Electrolyte Membrane 67Protonic Ceramic 68Regenerative 68Solid Oxide 69Zinc Air 71
Comparison of Fuel Cell Types 72
Hydrogen Production Sources 73Biological and Photobiological Systems 73Coal Gasification 74Electrolysis 74Fossil Fuels 75Industrial Wastes 75Methanol 75Thermal Processing 76Thermochemical Water Splitting 77Photoelectrochemical Systems 77
Micro Fuel Cell Technology 78How it Works 79Comparison with Traditional Fuel Cell Technology 80Hydrogen Fuel Cells 81DMFC 82Key Issues in the Micro Fuel Cells Market 83Pricing 83Regulations 83Technical Challenges 84Threats from Competition 85Threats from Existing Technology 85Commercialization of Micro Fuel Cells 87Current Market 87Outlook 89
Water Fuel Cell Technology 90Overview 90Construction of a WFC 91Stanley Meyer's Water‐Fueled Car 93Parameters 95Physical Construction of the Cell 95Pulsar Circuit 97Resonant Charging Chokes 98Voltage Intensifier Circuit 99Electron Extraction Circuit 100Considerations 101Conclusion 104
Regenerative Fuel Cell Technology 105Overview 105History 106Looking at a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell 107Prototype of URFC 108URFC‐Powered Electrical Vehicles 110Looking at a Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell 112Benefits of Regenerative Fuel Cells 112PEM Hydrogen‐Oxygen Regenerative Fuel Cell System 114
Stationary Fuel Cell Technology 116Overview 116Stationary Power and Fuel Cells 118Advantages of Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications: 118Factors Driving the Market 120Automotive Sector 121Small and Large Stationary Sector 121Portable Sector 121Military Sector 122Market Progress 122Issues Facing Stationary Fuel Cells 125High Capital Cost 125Generation of Hydrogen 125Problems Facing Technologies Behind Fuel Cells 126Flexibility of Fuels Available 127Integration Issues 128Issues with Superior Reliability 128Issues Related to Infrastructure 129Non‐Technical Issues 130Other Issues 130Distributed Power Generation and Fuel Cell Technology 131Market Outlook 133
Section 3: Case Studies 135
DOE Programs 136Transportation Systems 136Stationary Systems 136Fuel Processors 137Portable Power/APUs/Off‐Road Applications 137Stack Components 138Research & Development 139Hydrogen Infrastructure 140IEA Hydrogen Program 140Compressed Hydrogen Infrastructure Program (CH2IP) 140Integrated Hydrogen Energy Systems 141Industrial Applications 142Coca Cola Utilizes Fuel Cells 143University of Hawaii Develops Charcoal‐fired Fuel Cell 144Micro Fuel Cells 146Jadoo Power 146Canon 147Casio 147Hitachi 148Motorola 148MTI Micro Fuel Cells 149Sanyo Electric 149Methanol Fuel Cell 149Fuel Cell Breakthrough Could Boost Portable Power 150South Korea Invests In Fuel Cells 150Miniature Cells for Telephones 150Mining 151Military 157Battery Replacements 157Fuel Cells for Military Vehicles 157Power Generation 158Wastewater Treatment Plants 158New Fuel Sources 160Miniature Fuel Cells Produce Energy from Biofluids 160Portable Power 161IdaTech’s 250‐Watt Fuel Cell Portable Power 162New Fuel Cell Generator 1625kW Hydrogen Fueled Back‐up Power 162Power Generation 163Proton Unveils New Hydrogen Generator 163LH2‐fueled Cogeneration Unit with Fuel Cells 163FuelCell Energy Hybrid Product 163FuelCell Energy Selected By US Department of Energy to Develop a Coal‐Based Multi‐Megawatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System 165Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrids 167Residential Applications 169Ceramic Fuel Cells Providing Fuel Cells for Micro‐CHP Units 170Sporting Events 171Using Fuel Cells for the Olympics 171Storage 174Dynetek to Deliver Storage Systems to Ford 174Palcan's UPS System 174TeliaSonera Back Up Power System 174Telecommunication Systems 175PV–Fuel Cell Hybrid System 175PV System with Long‐term Energy Storage 176Transportation 177Ballard Cells to Power DOE Vehicles 179BMW Enters Fuel Cell Industry 179Cellkraft Test Runs Fuel Cell Boat 179Cellex Develops System to Replace Lead Acid Batteries 180California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP) 180DaimlerChrysler Unveils Fuel Cell Vehicle 181EU’s Cleaner Urban Transport for Europe 181GVB’s Hydrogen Bus Operation 182Hybrid Bus 183Hydrogenics GmbH to Build Fuel Cell Powered Aircraft 183Toro Company to Design Fuel Cell‐powered Utility Vehicle for ATK 184UK Hydrogen Highway Project 185Volvo Enters the Fuel Cell Industry 189Zero‐Emission Buses in Real‐World Use 190
Major Players 191Altergy Systems 191Eneos Celltech 192wwweneoscelltechcojpIdaTech LLC 192IdaTech LLC 193P21 194Plug Power Inc 195
Fuel Cell Industry Resources 196Companies 196Government Links 203Government Links 203University Sites 205Miscellaneous 205Current News 206
About the Publisher 246
List of Figures and Tables
Figure 1: Fuel Cell Manufacturing by Region 29Figure 2: Export of Fuel Cell System ‐ by Region 30Figure 3: Global Fuel Cell Market Revenues (in $ billion) 48Figure 4: How Fuel Cells Work 54Figure 5: Electrochemical Reactions of the Fuel Cell Types 63Figure 6: How a Micro Fuel Cell Works 79Figure 7: Storage Densities of Energy Conversion / Storage Systems 80Figure 8: The Water Fuel Cell, as described in Meyer's Patents 92Figure 9: The Circuit Used to Drive the Water Fuel Cell, As Described in Meyer's Patents 93Figure 10: The Meyer Waveform 95Figure 11: The VIC Transformer Coils 99Figure 12: Lamp Powered Entirely by the Free Electron 101Figure 13: Output of the Newman Energy Machine versus Meyer Water Fuel Cell 103Figure 14: Electrochemistry of a unitized regenerative fuel cell 107Figure 15: URFCs will someday find a multitude of applications 109Figure 16: Cost Effectiveness in Energy Storage of RFC Compared to Batteries 113Figure 17: Annual New Small Stationary Units 123Figure 18: Cumulative Small Stationary Units 1960 – 2007 123Figure 19: Charcoal Fuel Cell 145
Table 1: Fuel Cell Support ‐ 2010 32Table 2: Projected Levels of Fuel Cell Support ‐ 2020 32Table 3: Projected Adoption by Region and Application ‐ 2015 33