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Emerging Fuel Cell Technologies Market Trends

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Published Date: Jan, 2011
Format: PDF
No of Pages: 247
 
 
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  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Over the next decade, fuel cell demand is expected to increase due to high petroleum prices, dependence on foreign oil, and continued environmental concerns. Fuel cells have potential in space and military applications, transportation, stationary uses, utility scale application, and in ortable products. Different types of fuel cells are suited for different applications.

This report examines emerging fuel cell technologies, including water fuel cells, regenerative fuel cells, stationary fuel cells, and more. Due to the advancements made in technology, new fuel cell types are rapidly being developed, and this report is a comprehensive guide to understanding these new fuel cells along with their various applications.

Aerospace and motor vehicle fuel cell applications are projected to grow rapidly through 2013, according to research from Energy Business Reports. The portable electronics market is expected to report the strongest advances through 2020. PEM fuel cells, which operate at low temperature and offer high energy densities, are projected to maintain their dominant market position through 2014. Use of fuel cells in portable electronics and power generation applications is expected to increase rapidly and to stimulate demand for DMFCs. In the near term.

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts a source fuel into an electric current. It generates electricity inside a cell through reactions between a fuel and an oxidant, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte. The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it. Fuel cells can operate continuously as long as the necessary reactant and oxidant flows are maintained.

Fuel cells are different from conventional electrochemical cell batteries in that they consume reactant from an external source, which must be replenished – a thermodynamically open system. By contrast, batteries store electrical energy chemically and hence represent a thermodynamically closed system.

Table of Contents :

Fuel Cells: Catalysts of the Clean Technology Revolution 10

Section 1: Industry Overview 18

History of Fuel Cells 19

Industry Challenges 21
Cost 21
Endurance and Reliability 22
Onboard Storage 23
System Size 23
Fuel Flexibility 23
Air, Thermal, and Water Management 24
Hydrogen Availability 25
Performance 25
System Integration 26
Improved Heat Recovery Systems 26
Safety Concerns 27
Lack of Innovative Technical Development 27
Public Acceptance 28
Transportation Application Challenges 28
Compressor/Expandor Technologies 28
Thermal and Water Management Technologies 28
Physical and Chemical Sensors 28
Geographical Trends 29
Major Regions of Manufacturing 29
Emergence of New Manufacturing Regions 30
Emphasis on Core Countries of Production 33

Standards and Regulations 35
Determining Quality Standards for Fuel Cells 35
Regulatory Issues 39

R&D and Investing 41
R&D Spending 41
Fuel Cells VC and Public Market Investment 43
Fuel Cell Stocks Performance 47

Market Forecast 48
Role of Fuel Cells in Future Cars 50

Section 2: Understanding Fuel Cell Technology 52

How Fuel Cells Work 53
Parts of a Fuel Cell 55
Membrane Electrode Assembly 55
Catalyst 56
Hardware 56
Shin‐Etsu Polymer Reduces Cost of Fuel Cell Separator 58

Types of Fuel Cells 59
Alkaline 59
Direct Methanol 60
Fuel Cells Minus Membranes 62
Metal‐Air "Fuel Cells" 63
Molten Carbonate 64
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC) 66
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane 67
Protonic Ceramic 68
Regenerative 68
Solid Oxide 69
Zinc Air 71

Comparison of Fuel Cell Types 72

Hydrogen Production Sources 73
Biological and Photobiological Systems 73
Coal Gasification 74
Electrolysis 74
Fossil Fuels 75
Industrial Wastes 75
Methanol 75
Thermal Processing 76
Thermochemical Water Splitting 77
Photoelectrochemical Systems 77

Micro Fuel Cell Technology 78
How it Works 79
Comparison with Traditional Fuel Cell Technology 80
Hydrogen Fuel Cells 81
DMFC 82
Key Issues in the Micro Fuel Cells Market 83
Pricing 83
Regulations 83
Technical Challenges 84
Threats from Competition 85
Threats from Existing Technology 85
Commercialization of Micro Fuel Cells 87
Current Market 87
Outlook 89

Water Fuel Cell Technology 90
Overview 90
Construction of a WFC 91
Stanley Meyer's Water‐Fueled Car 93
Parameters 95
Physical Construction of the Cell 95
Pulsar Circuit 97
Resonant Charging Chokes 98
Voltage Intensifier Circuit 99
Electron Extraction Circuit 100
Considerations 101
Conclusion 104

Regenerative Fuel Cell Technology 105
Overview 105
History 106
Looking at a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell 107
Prototype of URFC 108
URFC‐Powered Electrical Vehicles 110
Looking at a Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell 112
Benefits of Regenerative Fuel Cells 112
PEM Hydrogen‐Oxygen Regenerative Fuel Cell System 114

Stationary Fuel Cell Technology 116
Overview 116
Stationary Power and Fuel Cells 118
Advantages of Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications: 118
Factors Driving the Market 120
Automotive Sector 121
Small and Large Stationary Sector 121
Portable Sector 121
Military Sector 122
Market Progress 122
Issues Facing Stationary Fuel Cells 125
High Capital Cost 125
Generation of Hydrogen 125
Problems Facing Technologies Behind Fuel Cells 126
Flexibility of Fuels Available 127
Integration Issues 128
Issues with Superior Reliability 128
Issues Related to Infrastructure 129
Non‐Technical Issues 130
Other Issues 130
Distributed Power Generation and Fuel Cell Technology 131
Market Outlook 133

Section 3: Case Studies 135

DOE Programs 136
Transportation Systems 136
Stationary Systems 136
Fuel Processors 137
Portable Power/APUs/Off‐Road Applications 137
Stack Components 138
Research & Development 139
Hydrogen Infrastructure 140
IEA Hydrogen Program 140
Compressed Hydrogen Infrastructure Program (CH2IP) 140
Integrated Hydrogen Energy Systems 141
Industrial Applications 142
Coca Cola Utilizes Fuel Cells 143
University of Hawaii Develops Charcoal‐fired Fuel Cell 144
Micro Fuel Cells 146
Jadoo Power 146
Canon 147
Casio 147
Hitachi 148
Motorola 148
MTI Micro Fuel Cells 149
Sanyo Electric 149
Methanol Fuel Cell 149
Fuel Cell Breakthrough Could Boost Portable Power 150
South Korea Invests In Fuel Cells 150
Miniature Cells for Telephones 150
Mining 151
Military 157
Battery Replacements 157
Fuel Cells for Military Vehicles 157
Power Generation 158
Wastewater Treatment Plants 158
New Fuel Sources 160
Miniature Fuel Cells Produce Energy from Biofluids 160
Portable Power 161
IdaTech’s 250‐Watt Fuel Cell Portable Power 162
New Fuel Cell Generator 162
5kW Hydrogen Fueled Back‐up Power 162
Power Generation 163
Proton Unveils New Hydrogen Generator 163
LH2‐fueled Cogeneration Unit with Fuel Cells 163
FuelCell Energy Hybrid Product 163
FuelCell Energy Selected By US Department of Energy to Develop a Coal‐Based Multi‐
Megawatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System 165
Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrids 167
Residential Applications 169
Ceramic Fuel Cells Providing Fuel Cells for Micro‐CHP Units 170
Sporting Events 171
Using Fuel Cells for the Olympics 171
Storage 174
Dynetek to Deliver Storage Systems to Ford 174
Palcan's UPS System 174
TeliaSonera Back Up Power System 174
Telecommunication Systems 175
PV–Fuel Cell Hybrid System 175
PV System with Long‐term Energy Storage 176
Transportation 177
Ballard Cells to Power DOE Vehicles 179
BMW Enters Fuel Cell Industry 179
Cellkraft Test Runs Fuel Cell Boat 179
Cellex Develops System to Replace Lead Acid Batteries 180
California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP) 180
DaimlerChrysler Unveils Fuel Cell Vehicle 181
EU’s Cleaner Urban Transport for Europe 181
GVB’s Hydrogen Bus Operation 182
Hybrid Bus 183
Hydrogenics GmbH to Build Fuel Cell Powered Aircraft 183
Toro Company to Design Fuel Cell‐powered Utility Vehicle for ATK 184
UK Hydrogen Highway Project 185
Volvo Enters the Fuel Cell Industry 189
Zero‐Emission Buses in Real‐World Use 190

Major Players 191
Altergy Systems 191
Eneos Celltech 192
wwweneoscelltechcojpIdaTech LLC 192
IdaTech LLC 193
P21 194
Plug Power Inc 195

Fuel Cell Industry Resources 196
Companies 196
Government Links 203
Government Links 203
University Sites 205
Miscellaneous 205
Current News 206

Glossary 207

About the Publisher 246

List of Figures and Tables

Figures

Figure 1: Fuel Cell Manufacturing by Region 29
Figure 2: Export of Fuel Cell System ‐ by Region 30
Figure 3: Global Fuel Cell Market Revenues (in $ billion) 48
Figure 4: How Fuel Cells Work 54
Figure 5: Electrochemical Reactions of the Fuel Cell Types 63
Figure 6: How a Micro Fuel Cell Works 79
Figure 7: Storage Densities of Energy Conversion / Storage Systems 80
Figure 8: The Water Fuel Cell, as described in Meyer's Patents 92
Figure 9: The Circuit Used to Drive the Water Fuel Cell, As Described in Meyer's Patents 93
Figure 10: The Meyer Waveform 95
Figure 11: The VIC Transformer Coils 99
Figure 12: Lamp Powered Entirely by the Free Electron 101
Figure 13: Output of the Newman Energy Machine versus Meyer Water Fuel Cell 103
Figure 14: Electrochemistry of a unitized regenerative fuel cell 107
Figure 15: URFCs will someday find a multitude of applications 109
Figure 16: Cost Effectiveness in Energy Storage of RFC Compared to Batteries 113
Figure 17: Annual New Small Stationary Units 123
Figure 18: Cumulative Small Stationary Units 1960 – 2007 123
Figure 19: Charcoal Fuel Cell 145

Tables

Table 1: Fuel Cell Support ‐ 2010 32
Table 2: Projected Levels of Fuel Cell Support ‐ 2020 32
Table 3: Projected Adoption by Region and Application ‐ 2015 33

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