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Efficient energy use means simply using less energy to provide the same level of service. An example would be insulating a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve the same temperature. Another example is installing fluorescent lights and/or skylights instead of incandescent lights to attain the same level of illumination. Efficient energy use is achieved primarily by means of a more efficient technology or process rather than by changes in individual behavior.
A building's location and surroundings play a key role in regulating its temperature and illumination. For example, trees, landscaping, and hills can provide shade and block wind. In cooler climates, designing buildings with an east-west orientation to increase the number of south-facing windows minimizes energy use, by maximizing passive solar heating. Tight building design, including energy-efficient windows, well-sealed doors, and additional thermal insulation of walls, basement slabs, and foundations can reduce heat loss by 25 to 50%.
Modern building practices often demonstrate little regard for energy efficiency or the larger economic, environmental or social impacts of the built environment. Green building attempts to break with these practices. Early efforts to bring change to the building sector in the 1960s through the 1980s generally focused on single issues such as energy efficiency and conservation of natural resources. Green building now integrates a wide range of building design, construction, and operation and maintenance practices to provide healthier living and working environments and minimize environmental impacts. Crucial to the success of green building has been the application of integrated design principles, a whole-building-systems approach, which brings together the key stakeholders and design professionals as a core team to work collaboratively from the early planning stages through to the building's occupation.
This report on Energy Efficient Buildings examines the concepts of energy efficiency in both commercial and residential building designs.
Table of Contents :Executive Summary 5What is Energy Efficiency? 7Overview 7Energy Efficient Appliances 9Energy Efficient Industries 9Energy Efficient Vehicles 10Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Energy 11Rebound Effect and Energy Efficiency 13
Introduction to Energy Efficient Buildings 14Overview 14Features of a Green Building 15How widespread is the Concept of Green Buildings 16Negative Environmental Impacts of Current Building Practices 17Benefits of Green Building 19Some Green Building Rating Systems 21GHG Emissions and Green Buildings 22AIA 2030 Challenge 23
Elements of an Energy Efficient Building 24Overview 24Basic Principles of an Energy Efficient Building 24Market Developments 26Looking at the Thermal Envelope 27Wall and Roof Assemblies 27Insulation 28Windows 29Weatherstripping and Caulking 31Controlled Ventilation 33Heating and Cooling Systems 34Looking at Energy-Efficient Appliances 35
Advantages and Disadvantages of Energy Efficient Buildings 37
Building and Buying an Energy Efficient Home 38Energy Flows in a Building 40
Standards of Eco Living 42Passive House Concept 42Minergie House Concept 42Zero Energy House Concept 43Energy Plus House Concept 43
Design Components 44
Financial Considerations of EEBs 46Overview 46Significance of Energy Cost 47Cost of Achieving Energy Efficiency 48
Major Trends 51Patterns in Building Stock 51Consumer and Demographic Trends 52Trends in Energy Demand in the built Environment and Supply 52Government Trends 53Scarcity of Resources 54Industrial/Commercial Trends 54
Forces Driving EEBs 56Market Forces 56Government Regulations and Programs 57
Challenges to Energy Efficient Buildings 59Challenges to Economic Pricing of Energy 59Factors such as Environment, Energy Security, Social Policy and Employment 59Technical Skills 60Doubts About Energy Consumption and Conservation 61Lack of Confidence in New Technologies 61Lack of Knowledge on Expenditure and Benefit 62Availability of Capital 62Separate Capital and Operating Budgets 63Split Incentives 63Risks and Uncertainties 64Lack of Coordination and Consistency in Government Policies 64Lack of Research Investments 65Technological Challenges 65Institutional Challenges 66
Overall Energy Consumption by Buildings 67
Energy Use in Buildings 73
Requirement of a Supportive Regulative Framework 76
Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Energy Efficient Buildings 80Overview 80Qualification Factors 80Tax Deduction 81Certification Requirements 81Calculating of Design Methods and Technologies 81Determining Building Compliance 82Interim Rules for Lighting Projects 83Overview of the Program 84Opportunities for Energy and Cost Savings 84Zero Energy Goals 85Tax Incentives for Energy Efficiency 86Commercial Buildings 87Residential Buildings 88Buildings Efficiency and Economic Recovery 88
Building America Program 90Systems Engineering Approach 91Methodology 93Results 94Benefits for the Buyer & Homeowners 94Benefits for Buyers 94Benefits for the Homeowners 95Benefits for the Country 96
Energy Star® Program 97
Obama’s New Energy Efficiency Efforts 99
Energy Efficient Buildings in Europe 103Energy in the EU 103Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Europe 106Energy Efficiency in EU 106Overview 106Policy Developments 107Regulations in Relation to Buildings 109Energy Performance of Buildings 109Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings 111Directive 2004/8/EC on the Promotion of Cogeneration 116Program for EU Member States related to Buildings 117Energy Services to Buildings 117Development of the EU Framework 119Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings in EU Member States 120Energy Efficiency Regulations 121Existing National Programs 121Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings 125Major Players 126Governments 127The European Union 128International Energy Agency 129European Energy Charter 130European Committee for Standardization 130Energie-Cités 130European Network of Buildings Research Institutes 131European Investment Bank 132European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 132Future 133
Country Analysis 135China 135Hong Kong 137India 139Japan 140Malaysia 142Philippines 144Singapore 145South Korea 146Taiwan 148Thailand 150
Case Studies 153Masdar City, Dubai 153Energy-Efficient Building Designing of the Louisiana Capitol Complex 156Energy Efficient Building Programs in Hawaii 158Enermodal Engineering’s Building 160
Major Players 163Actelios 163Cemex 164DuPont 165EDF 166Enermodal Engineering 167Honeywell 168Lafarge 169Philips 170TEPCO 171
About the Publisher 191
List of Figures and Tables
Figure 1: Possible Areas of Air Leakage 32Figure 2: Heat Recovery Ventilation 34Figure 3: Energy Flows within a Building 41Figure 4: Design Impacts on Energy Use 45Figure 5: Energy and Total Costs by Quality of Fittings 48Figure 6: Costing Green: A Comprehensive Cost Database and Budgeting Methodology 49Figure 7: Best and Worst Case Projections of Site Energy Demand 68Figure 8: Existing Building Floor Space 69Figure 9: Building Energy Projection by Region70Figure 10: Site Energy Sources 71Figure 11: Primary Energy 71Figure 12: Life Cycle Energy Use 72Figure 13: Complex Value Chain 74Figure 14: Three Approaches in a Supportive Framework 77Figure 15: Sources of Environmental Impacts in Each Phase of the Building Life Cycle 78Figure 16: Energy Demand in the EU 104Figure 17: Compliance Framework for Hong Kong Building Energy Standards 138Figure 18: Distribution of Energy Demand of Various Buildings Components 173Figure 19: Most Cost-effective Method for Lowering GHG Emissions 174Figure 20: Building Energy End Use Consumption 175Figure 21: “Integrated Building Systems”: Active Shading + Dimmable Lighting = Load Management Strategy 177
Table 1: Potential National Lighting Savings 176