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Energy Efficient Buildings

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Published Date: Jan, 2011
Format: PDF
No of Pages: 192
 
 
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  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Efficient energy use means simply using less energy to provide the same level of service. An example would be insulating a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve the same temperature. Another example is installing fluorescent lights and/or skylights instead of incandescent lights to attain the same level of illumination. Efficient energy use is achieved primarily by means of a more efficient technology or process rather than by changes in individual behavior.

A building's location and surroundings play a key role in regulating its temperature and illumination. For example, trees, landscaping, and hills can provide shade and block wind. In cooler climates, designing buildings with an east-west orientation to increase the number of south-facing windows minimizes energy use, by maximizing passive solar heating. Tight building design, including energy-efficient windows, well-sealed doors, and additional thermal insulation of walls, basement slabs, and foundations can reduce heat loss by 25 to 50%.

Modern building practices often demonstrate little regard for energy efficiency or the larger economic, environmental or social impacts of the built environment. Green building attempts to break with these practices. Early efforts to bring change to the building sector in the 1960s through the 1980s generally focused on single issues such as energy efficiency and conservation of natural resources. Green building now integrates a wide range of building design, construction, and operation and maintenance practices to provide healthier living and working environments and minimize environmental impacts. Crucial to the success of green building has been the application of integrated design principles, a whole-building-systems approach, which brings together the key stakeholders and design professionals as a core team to work collaboratively from the early planning stages through to the building's occupation.

This report on Energy Efficient Buildings examines the concepts of energy efficiency in both commercial and residential building designs.

Table of Contents :

Executive Summary 5
What is Energy Efficiency? 7
Overview 7
Energy Efficient Appliances 9
Energy Efficient Industries 9
Energy Efficient Vehicles 10
Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Energy 11
Rebound Effect and Energy Efficiency 13

Introduction to Energy Efficient Buildings 14
Overview 14
Features of a Green Building 15
How widespread is the Concept of Green Buildings 16
Negative Environmental Impacts of Current Building Practices 17
Benefits of Green Building 19
Some Green Building Rating Systems 21
GHG Emissions and Green Buildings 22
AIA 2030 Challenge 23

Elements of an Energy Efficient Building 24
Overview 24
Basic Principles of an Energy Efficient Building 24
Market Developments 26
Looking at the Thermal Envelope 27
Wall and Roof Assemblies 27
Insulation 28
Windows 29
Weatherstripping and Caulking 31
Controlled Ventilation 33
Heating and Cooling Systems 34
Looking at Energy-Efficient Appliances 35

Advantages and Disadvantages of Energy Efficient Buildings 37

Building and Buying an Energy Efficient Home 38
Energy Flows in a Building 40

Standards of Eco Living 42
Passive House Concept 42
Minergie House Concept 42
Zero Energy House Concept 43
Energy Plus House Concept 43

Design Components 44

Financial Considerations of EEBs 46
Overview 46
Significance of Energy Cost 47
Cost of Achieving Energy Efficiency 48

Major Trends 51
Patterns in Building Stock 51
Consumer and Demographic Trends 52
Trends in Energy Demand in the built Environment and Supply 52
Government Trends 53
Scarcity of Resources 54
Industrial/Commercial Trends 54

Forces Driving EEBs 56
Market Forces 56
Government Regulations and Programs 57

Challenges to Energy Efficient Buildings 59
Challenges to Economic Pricing of Energy 59
Factors such as Environment, Energy Security, Social Policy and Employment 59
Technical Skills 60
Doubts About Energy Consumption and Conservation 61
Lack of Confidence in New Technologies 61
Lack of Knowledge on Expenditure and Benefit 62
Availability of Capital 62
Separate Capital and Operating Budgets 63
Split Incentives 63
Risks and Uncertainties 64
Lack of Coordination and Consistency in Government Policies 64
Lack of Research Investments 65
Technological Challenges 65
Institutional Challenges 66

Overall Energy Consumption by Buildings 67

Energy Use in Buildings 73

Requirement of a Supportive Regulative Framework 76

Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Energy Efficient Buildings 80
Overview 80
Qualification Factors 80
Tax Deduction 81
Certification Requirements 81
Calculating of Design Methods and Technologies 81
Determining Building Compliance 82
Interim Rules for Lighting Projects 83
Overview of the Program 84
Opportunities for Energy and Cost Savings 84
Zero Energy Goals 85
Tax Incentives for Energy Efficiency 86
Commercial Buildings 87
Residential Buildings 88
Buildings Efficiency and Economic Recovery 88

Building America Program 90
Systems Engineering Approach 91
Methodology 93
Results 94
Benefits for the Buyer & Homeowners 94
Benefits for Buyers 94
Benefits for the Homeowners 95
Benefits for the Country 96

Energy Star® Program 97

Obama’s New Energy Efficiency Efforts 99

Energy Efficient Buildings in Europe 103
Energy in the EU 103
Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Europe 106
Energy Efficiency in EU 106
Overview 106
Policy Developments 107
Regulations in Relation to Buildings 109
Energy Performance of Buildings 109
Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings 111
Directive 2004/8/EC on the Promotion of Cogeneration 116
Program for EU Member States related to Buildings 117
Energy Services to Buildings 117
Development of the EU Framework 119
Improving Energy Efficiency of Buildings in EU Member States 120
Energy Efficiency Regulations 121
Existing National Programs 121
Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings 125
Major Players 126
Governments 127
The European Union 128
International Energy Agency 129
European Energy Charter 130
European Committee for Standardization 130
Energie-Cités 130
European Network of Buildings Research Institutes 131
European Investment Bank 132
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 132
Future 133

Country Analysis 135
China 135
Hong Kong 137
India 139
Japan 140
Malaysia 142
Philippines 144
Singapore 145
South Korea 146
Taiwan 148
Thailand 150

Case Studies 153
Masdar City, Dubai 153
Energy-Efficient Building Designing of the Louisiana Capitol Complex 156
Energy Efficient Building Programs in Hawaii 158
Enermodal Engineering’s Building 160

Major Players 163
Actelios 163
Cemex 164
DuPont 165
EDF 166
Enermodal Engineering 167
Honeywell 168
Lafarge 169
Philips 170
TEPCO 171

Appendix 173

Glossary 178

About the Publisher 191

List of Figures and Tables


Figure 1: Possible Areas of Air Leakage 32
Figure 2: Heat Recovery Ventilation 34
Figure 3: Energy Flows within a Building 41
Figure 4: Design Impacts on Energy Use 45
Figure 5: Energy and Total Costs by Quality of Fittings 48
Figure 6: Costing Green: A Comprehensive Cost Database and Budgeting Methodology 49
Figure 7: Best and Worst Case Projections of Site Energy Demand 68
Figure 8: Existing Building Floor Space 69
Figure 9: Building Energy Projection by Region70
Figure 10: Site Energy Sources 71
Figure 11: Primary Energy 71
Figure 12: Life Cycle Energy Use 72
Figure 13: Complex Value Chain 74
Figure 14: Three Approaches in a Supportive Framework 77
Figure 15: Sources of Environmental Impacts in Each Phase of the Building Life Cycle 78
Figure 16: Energy Demand in the EU 104
Figure 17: Compliance Framework for Hong Kong Building Energy Standards 138
Figure 18: Distribution of Energy Demand of Various Buildings Components 173
Figure 19: Most Cost-effective Method for Lowering GHG Emissions 174
Figure 20: Building Energy End Use Consumption 175
Figure 21: “Integrated Building Systems”: Active Shading + Dimmable Lighting = Load Management Strategy 177

Table 1: Potential National Lighting Savings 176

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