The U.S. Commercial & Residential Cleaning Services Industry

 Published On: Jun, 2012 |    No of Pages: 226 |  Published By: Marketdata Enterprises Inc | Format: PDF
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This Marketdata study examines the huge $78 billion commercial contract cleaning and maintenance services market. The business, which encompasses janitorial services, pest control, window cleaning, carpet/floor cleaning, parking lot maintenance, security, HVAC/facilities management and more, is very competitive, comprised of 906,000 mainly small operators, including 48,400 franchised outlets. Competitors run the gamut from mom & pop cleaners, to giants such as ABM Industries with $2.4 billion in revenues and UGL UNICCO with $852 million in commercial maintenance sales. This study traces industry size, growth, segments, structure, end-user demand, and operating ratios — Receipts for 1987-2010 actual, 2011-2012 estimates, and 2016 forecasts.

Steady sales gains of 5-7% per year, and 10% in 2007 came to a halt in 2009 with the recession, real estate bust, rising office building vacancy rates, and cutbacks in the frequency of cleaning by clients. Some customers even shifted to in-house cleaning. Low-ball prices, discounts and rebates have become the norm, hurting profits. Green cleaning and certification has become more important.

This is a complete analysis of: competitor market share, major industry trends, industry franchising, office and industrial building vacancy rates, impact of the recession, cleaning worker pay/turnover, outsourcing, more. Includes highlights of latest surveys by trade journals, as well as comments and outlooks by top competitors, trade groups and industry consultants. Separate in-depth chapters analyze the Carpet Cleaning and Residential/Maid Services segments. National, state and city ratios from Census Bureau surveys. Includes in-depth profiles and rankings of all the top franchise and non-franchise competitors (ABM Industries, Anago, Bonus Building Care, ServiceMaster, Jani-King, Jan-Pro, Clean Net, Coverall, Pritchard Industries, Red Coats, Vanguard, UGL Unicco.)

Introduction - Study Scope, Sources Used, Methodology 1-6

* Industry Nature & Definition: Description of the industry's major segments, services provided, NAICS codes

Executive Overview of Major Findings ($300) 7-27

* Highlights & key findings of all report chapters: industry nature, analysis of major trends/issues affecting the industry (the
recession, outsourcing, pricing, commercial office vacancy rates, commercial construction, franchising, green cleaning), outlooks by managements of competitors & consultants, industry size/growth -1987-2016 Forecast, 2009-2011 performance, franchising’s importance, sales of top competitors (franchises & non-franchise firms). Analysis of educational, healthcare, other key end-user segments, industry structure, 2007 Census key operating ratios (no. of services in U.S., avg. sales, by: janitorial, pest control carpet cleaning, other building maintenance services), client mix.

The Outlook For Office Space and Commercial Construction ($200) 28-47

* Status report of commercial & office construction activity and indicators: value of non-residential construction, commercial office vacancy rates in major metro areas & nationwide, discussion of absorption rates
* Outlooks by: Natl. Assn. of Realtors, CB Richard Ellis, Jones Lang LaSalle: 2012-2013 projections
* Industrial building outlook
* Medical building construction outlook
* Amount of existing commercial floor space by U.S. and by region (1986-2003 – latest data 2003), share of space by type activity (retail, education, healthcare)
* Commercial office vacancy rates, by10 largest cities, office mkts. With highest vacancy rates
* Discussion of absorption rates, “shadow space”.


- National office vacancy rates by: downtown, suburban, metropolitan
- Top office space markets, by million sq. ft.
- Value of new construction of non-residential buildings, by type: 2008-2011
- Value of new construction of non-residential buildings: 1990-2011
- Distribution of floor space, by main building activity: 1992-2003 (gov’t suvey)
- No. of buildings and % of total floor space by type activity (education, health care, lodging, retail, offices, warehouses, etc.), by region (1986, 1989, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2003)
- Distribution of commercial floor space, no. of buildings, by Census region.
- U.S. healthcare expenditures & construction spending: 1990-2010, 2016 projections.

Industry Size, Growth, Market Segments ($250) 48-62

* Discussion/analysis of 2-tiered mkt. structure (large contractors vs. small independents, and franchise organizations vs. non-franchise cleaners), estd. share by top 9 firms
* Discussion of factors affecting demand, the recession, performance during last recession
* Industry size estimates; rationale for estimates by varying sources, historical values – Marketdata's 1992-2016 estimates/forecasts, factors affecting recent growth
* Indy. Segment growth: analysis of janitorial revenues (by company), pest control
* Discussion of market size, based on commercial floor space vs. Census survey receipts
* 2012 & 2016 forecasts & outlook: Marketdata projections, key factors affecting growth
* Discussion of why the industry is recession-resistant, historical performance


- Total industry potential, $ value and % change (1992-2011)
- Share of total receipts by exterminating/pest control, janitorial, carpet cleaning, "all other" building cleaning & maintenance services (1983-1998) - Census Bureau data
- Total industry receipts, by major segments, annual % change (2000-2010, Census Bureau): total Industry, pest control, janitorial, carpet cleaning, other services to buildings
- Annual percent change in receipts: 1992-2011
- Historical share of industry sales by pest control vs. janitorial/all other services: 1985-2007
- Employer vs. non-employer receipts: 2000-2009
- The 20 largest commercial cleaning companies list: 2011 revenues.

Status Report of The Carpet Cleaning Industry ($300) 63-82

* Nature of the business, evolution of the industry, how carpet cleaning services operate, services performed, franchises vs. independents
* Major mkt. trends/developments of past several years: discussion
* Discussion of impact of alternative floor coverings, impact on carpet sales/usage
* 2010 carpet cleaning truckmount survey results (ICS Cleaning Specialist magazine)
* Historical size of the industry: Marketdata estimates of true size of the segment (1987-2011)
* Discussion of how market potential derived, avg. annual sales per service, forecast and outlook for the sector, effect of recessions/gas prices/housing starts, other indicators.
* Estimates of commercial/residential/disaster recovery segments, $ values (2004, 2008)
* Industry outlooks by: SEARS Carpet Cleaning, Heaven’s Best, other consultants.
* Franchising: analysis of no. of outlets, start-up costs, the top 6 carpet cleaning franchisers, estd. systemwide revenues (2007-2011), franchises by no. of units,
* Carpet cleaner contractor operating ratios: highlights of 2010 Contract Cleaner CMM Magazine survey (revenues, avg. fees, methods, etc.), 1992-2007 Census… no. of estabs., receipts, avg. receipts per estab., sources of receipts, multi-unit firms, legal form of firm, top 50 mkt. share, source of receipts.

The Residential Maid Services Market ($200) 83-95

* Summary: nature & estd. $ sales per franchise vs. commercial cleaning services, list of top franchise companies in the business, franchises vs. independent maids, reasons for demand and effects of the recession, 2008-2016F $ mkt. size.
* End-user household demographics: findings of Mediamark Research survey: major target age groups and usage of professional cleaning services
* How maid services operate, fees charged, bonding, pay methods, immigrants, etc.
* Market size estimates, by trade group ARSCI, competitors, Marketdata
* Merry Maids revenues, by co.-owned vs. franchised units: 2008-2011
* List of residential cleaning services franchises: (The Maids Intl., Maid Brigade; Merry Maids, Molly Maid, Cottage Care, Swisher Maids, Mini Maid, Home Cleaning Centers of America) - addresses.


- Projected no. of U.S. households using a maid or housekeep, by age group
- Residential cleaning franchises: start-up costs, franchise fee, royalty rates
- Number of maid services franchises: 2008-2011
- Franchise fees, total start-up costs, royalty rates, by company

Industry Structure & Operating Ratios of the Industry ($400) 96-178

Total Industry Analysis - Discussion/Text p. 96-121

* Explanation of how to interpret Census data, how the data is arranged/classified by NAICS codes, and major market segments, 2007 Census
* Service Annual Survey: Industry receipts and % changes
* Non-employer receipts of 906,000 sole proprietorships without payrolls, IRS data
* Summary & analysis: no. of cleaning establishments in U.S. and for leading states; no. of firms; industry size; avg. receipts per office by top states; mkt. share top 50 firms ratios; summary findings of 2007 Census & comparison to 2002 data… re: legal form of organization, firms & estabs. by sales size (in receipts & employment); single/multi-unit operations.
* Labor productivity ratios: by industry segment: 2007
* Summary statistics: 1997 vs. 2002 vs. 2007 - no. of estabs; total industry vs. disinfecting/pest control, other services; annual receipts; payroll costs; no. of workers; payroll per employee; receipts per employee, receipts per establishment.
* Geographic analysis - share of national receipts, avg. receipts per estab., by state, top states' ranking: 2002, 2007
* Industry Financial health: composite income statement & balance sheet ratios, profitabilitytrends, by size of cleaning contractor (janitorial services, pest control, other services: 2007-2011

Statistical Tables: p. 122-178

Total Industry- All Types of Commercial Cleaning Contractors Aggregated - Total cleaning industry firms, by legal form of organization -corporations, sole proprietorships, partnerships: 1997, 2002, 2007 (no. of firms, receipts, payroll as % receipts,no. of employees).

- Single vs. multi-unit operations, by size (statistics as above) 1997, 2002, 2007.
- Concentration Ratios: ratios for top 4, 8, 20, 50 largest firms 1997, 2002, 2007
- Total Commercial Cleaning Firms, by receipts size (under $100,000 to $100 + mill.); (no. of firms, estabs., receipts, payroll, avg. receipts per firm) 1997, 2002, 2007
- Receipts & avg. receipts per establishment, by state - 1997, 2002, 2007.

Janitorial-Building Cleaning & Maint. Services

- Janitorial service firms, by legal form of organization - corporate, sole proprietorships, partnerships: 1997 & 2002, (no. of firms, receipts, payroll as % receipts, no. of employees)
- Single vs. multi-unit operations, by size (statistics as above) 1997, 2002, 2007
- Concentration Ratios : ratios by top 4, 8, 20, 50 largest firms 1997, 2002, 2007
- Janitorial service firms, by receipts size (under $100,000 to $100+ mill.) (no. of firms, estabs., receipts, payroll, avg. receipts per firm), 1997, 2002, 2007.
- Receipts & avg. receipts per establishment, by state – 2002, 2007.

Exterminating & Pest Control Services

- Exterminating & pest control firms, by legal form of organization - corporate, sole proprietorships, partnerships: 1997 & 2002, (no. of firms, receipts, payroll as % receipts, no. of employees) - Single vs. multi-unit operations, by size (statistics as above) 1997, 2002, 2007- Concentration Ratios : ratios by top 4, 8, 20, 50 largest firms: 1997, 2002, 2007.- Disinfecting & pest control firms, by receipts size (under $100,000 to $100+ mill.) (no. of firms, estabs., receipts, payroll, avg. receipts per firm), 1997, 2002, 2007

- Receipts & avg. receipts per establishment, by state – 2002, 2007.

Carpet Cleaning Services

- (all tables , as above) – 1997, 2002, 2007

Miscellaneous Building Maintenance Services

- (all tables , as above) – 1997, 2002, 2007

Competitor Profiles: Major Cleaning Franchise Organizations ($350) 179-212

* Summary - how many exist? - Entrepreneur magazine’s 2011 Franchise 500 ranking, Discussion: how cleaning franchises work and differ, services typically provided by parent, master franchises,

* Analysis of avg. initial franchise fees/royalty rates/start-up costs

* The industry's leading franchisers: parent co. vs. systemwide revenues, avg. estimated annual receipts, difficulties estimating revenues due to full-time vs. part-time workers; franchise investment pkgs. sold.


- The major commercial cleaning franchises: 10 companies’ systemwide sales: 2011.

- Top janitorial franchises (no. of units 2006-2008, franchise. fee, royalty %, start-up $)

- The major commercial cleaning franchises, by no. of units: 2008-2011.

Profiles of The Leading Commercial Cleaning Franchises & Non-Franchise Firms

(For each company below: discussion & analysis of services offered, divisions, franchise packages offered/cost, markets served; strategies, UFOC financials; 2009-2011 sales when avail., history & recent developments; acquisitions, number of franchises; marketing strategies)

* ABM Industries

* Anago Cleaning Systems

* Bonus Building Care

* Clean Net USA

* Coverall North America

* Jan-Pro Intl.* Jani-King Intl.

* ServiceMaster (incl. ServiceMaster Clean)

* UGL UNICCO Services

Reference Directory of Industry Information Sources

* Addresses, phones, contacts at major industry trade associations, trade journals, consulting firms: commercial cleaning and carpet cleaning segments

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