Oil Sands, Gas and Oil Shales Market Growth

 Published On: Mar, 2011 |    No of Pages: 277 |  Published By: Energy Business Reports | Format: PDF
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Oil Sands, also known as tar sands and bituminous sands, have emerged as a source of unconventional petroleum resources. Oil sands are being used worldwide as a petroleum alternative. While Canada is a leader in the oil sands industry, the United States and other countries are catching up fast and developing oil sands in a bid to upgrade the bitumen source to synthetic crude oil.

A new report, Oil Sands, Oil Sands, Gas and Oil Shales Market Growth analyzes these sources of energy in three sections and each analysis contains an overview of the energy source, the technology involved in extracting these forms of energy, the industry status of the energy source, and the major players involved in making these alternative forms of energy a major success today.

Gas shales are a type of natural gas that is produced from shales. With the rising demands for energy in the world today, shale gas has become an important source of natural gas in not only the United States, but all over the world.

Oil shales are organic sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of kerogen that can be converted into liquid hydrocarbons. While these are three different forms of unconventional energy sources, what is common amongst these them is that the world is starting to use them more and more as the energy crunch hits major countries.

This research report explores the tremendous possibilities offered by these three unconventional sources of energy - Oil Sands, Gas Shales, and Oil Shales.

The economics of each energy form is also analyzed as well as the environmental impact of extracting energy from these shale and sand formations.

This report is for investors and researchers interested in learning about the market potential in Oil Sands, Gas Shales, and Oil Shales.

Table of Contents :

Executive Summary 9
Section 1: Analysis of Oil Sands 11
Introduction to Oil Sands 12
What are Oil Sands? 12
History of Oil Sands 13
Extraction of Oil Sands 14
Surface Mining 14
Cold Flow 15
Combustion Overhead Gravity Drainage 16
Cyclic Steam Stimulation 16
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage 16
Vapor Extraction Process 17
Toe to Heel Air Injection 18
Environmental Issues Facing Oil Sands 19
Overview 19
Air Pollution 19
Impact of Mining on Land 20
Impact on Water Resources 20
Emission of Greenhouse Gases 21
Impact on Aquatic Life 23
Other Environmental Concerns 23
Energy Requirement for Oil Sand Extraction 24
Analysis of Canada’s Oil Sands Industry 25
Industry Overview 25
Global Impact of the Industry 28
Make-up of the Bitumen Resources 30
Challenges Facing the Industry 31
Market Opportunities 33
Mining the Oil Sands 35
Extraction 37
In-situ Bitumen 38
Cyclic Steam Stimulation 39
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage 40
Generating Steam 42
Firefloods 42
“Cold” Production 43
Processing 44
Upgrading 44
Transportation 46
Economics of the Industry 47
Energy Balance for Oil Sands Mining-Upgrading Projects 49
Products of the Industry 50
Sustaining the Environment 51
Regulatory Framework 52
Ongoing R&D 54
Oil Sands Production Primer 55
Future of the Industry 56
Analysis of the Athabasca Oil Sands 59
Introduction 59
History of the Athabasca Oil Sands 59
Development of the Athabasca Deposits 60
Extracting Bitumen from the Deposits 61
Commercial Production from Athabasca Oil Sands 63
Production Forecast from Athabasca Oil Sands 63
Overall Estimation of Oil Reserves in the Athabasca Deposits 64
Economics of Oil Extraction from the Athabasca Deposits 65
Political Significance of the Deposit 67
Environmental Issues with the Athabasca Oil Sands 68
Impact on Land 68
Impact on Water Resources 69
Use of Natural Gas and Greenhouse Gases Emissions 69
Company Profiles-Athabasca Oil Sands 71
Overview 71
Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) 71
Imperial Oil 72
Nexen Inc 75
etro Canada 76
Shell Canada 78
Sinopec (China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation) 81
Statoil 85
Suncor Energy 89
Syncrude Canada 93
Teck Resources 95
Total SA 97
Analysis of the Utah Oil Sands 103
Introduction 103
History of the Utah Oil Sands 103
Production Sites 103
Utah Oil Sands Joint Venture 103
Case Study: Mackay River in-Situ Oil Sands Projects 106
Case Study: Kearl Oil Sands Project 108
Section 2: Analysis of Gas Shales 111
Introduction to Gas Shales 112
Overview 112
Role of Fracturing 113
Flow Rates 114
Process of Unlocking 115
Shale Gas Economics 116
Environmental Considerations 116
Processes in Extracting Gas Shales 117
Hydraulic Fracturing 117
Horizontal Drilling 121
Fluid Management 123
Shale Gas in the United States 125
Overview 125
History of the Industry 127
Shale Gas Production & Reserves 127
Major Shale Gas Production Regions 128
Antrim Shale, Michigan 128
Barnett Shale, Texas 130
Caney Shale, Oklahoma 130
Conesauga Shale, Alabama 130
Devonian Shales, Appalachian Basin 131
Fayetteville Shale, Arkansas 134
Floyd Shale, Alabama 134
Gothic Shale, Colorado 134
Haynesville Shale, Louisiana 134
New Albany Shale, Illinois Basin 134
Pearsall Shale, Texas 135
Utica Shale, New York 135
Woodford Shale, Oklahoma 135
DOE/NETL Research Program 135
Role of Shale Gas in Unconventional Gas in the U.S. 137
Regulatory Framework 138
Quality of Surface Water 139
Surface Water Quality Issues 142
Protecting the Groundwater 143
Safe Drinking Water Act Authority 143
Underground Injection of Waste Fluids 145
State Water Quality Laws 147
State Water Supply Management 148
Shale Gas in Canada 151
Overview 151
Major Shale Gas Production Regions 151
Frederick Brook Shale, New Brunswick 151
Horton Bluff Shale, Nova Scotia 151
Montney Shale, British Columbia 151
Muskwa Shale, British Columbia 151
Utica Shale, Quebec 152
Impact of Gas Shales on the LNG Industry 153
Introduction 153
Comparing the LNG Market with Gas Shale Market 153
Investment Boom in LNG Facilities 155
LNG versus Shale Gas 156
Changing Industry Perception 157
Dealing with Market Shortage 157
Understanding the Cost Structure 158
Understanding the Cost Curve 159
Impact of Shale Gas on LNG Markets 161
Impact on New LNG Projects 162
Cost of New Projects 163
Conclusion 163
Impact of Shale Gas on the Global Energy Industry 165
Water Issues Facing Shale Gas Production 168
Stormwater Runoff 168
Water Supply for Drilling and Other Processes 172
Water Flowing to the Surface 173
Major Players in Gas Shales 175
Anadarko Petroleum 175
Apache Corporation 178
Bill Barrett Corporation 181
Chesapeake Energy 183
Devon Energy 185
EnCana 188
EOG Resources 190
Newfield Exploration 193
Range Resources 196
Talisman Energy 198
XTO Energy 202
Section 3: Analysis of Oil Shales 205
Introduction to Oil Shales 206
Overview 206
History of the Industry 206
Oil Shale Geology 207
Shale Oil Extraction 209
Applications of Shale Oil 210
Global Oil Shale Reserves 211
Overview 211
Estimating Shale Oil Reserves 211
Regional Analysis 212
Global Overview 212
Africa 212
Asia 213
Europe 213
Middle East 214
North America 214
Australia 214
South America 214
Analysis of the Oil Shale Industry 215
Overview 215
Power Generation with Shale Oil 215
Major Producers of Shale Oil 216
Industrial Uses of Shale Oil 217
Economics of Oil Shale 218
Overview 218
Competing with Oil Prices 218
Energy Use & Water Requirement 219
Investment in the Industry 221
Environmental Impact of Shale Oil Mining 222
Major Players in Shale Oil 224
Ambre Energy 224
American Shale Oil Corporation 225
Eesti Energia 226
Exxon Mobil Corporation 227
Fushun Mining Group 229
Hom Tov 230
Independent Energy Partners 230
Mountain West Energy 231
Oil Shale Exploration Company 233
Petrobras 234
Queensland Energy Resources 237
Red Leaf Resources 238
Shale Technologies LLC 239
Section 4: Conclusion 241
Appendix 242
Glossary 260
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