Water for Food & Beverage: Opportunities in water efficiency and gaining value from wastewater

 Published On: Mar, 2012 |    No of Pages: 316 |  Published By: Global Water Intelligence | Format: PDF
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The food and beverage sector is a multi-billion dollar market for water and wastewater treatment technologies. With the largest companies consuming as much water per year as small countries, the global industry uses around 62 km3 per year. That’s about as much as the total utility water supply for the Middle East and North Africa combined.

The sheer diversity of the products, processing steps, water and wastewater treatment needs of food and drink companies opens up many ways to access the market. And there are a number of global trends that are creating huge opportunities for water technology companies: the tightening of wastewater quality regulations, the trend towards environmental efficiency, emerging market growth and water scarcity will ensure that capex on water technologies by F&B companies will reach $6bn in 2020.

The stage is set for every player in the market to increase their revenue in this sector. Access is open to all water technology companies, ranging from large global firms to smaller niche technology manufacturers. We interviewed representatives from leading food and beverage companies, food and beverage associations and water technology experts so you can benefit from their experience of how the market operates.

Water for Food & Beverage covers the sub-sectors that are most water intensive, and those that produce highly loaded wastewater streams:

• Dairy
• Brewery
• Fruit and vegetable
• Sugar
• Meat, poultry and fish
• Aquaculture

Primary research

“If food and beverage companies don’t follow global best practice in water efficiency, or if they don’t clean up their wastewater properly, then their brand can be permanently impaired within days.” Christopher Gasson, Publisher, Global Water Intelligence.

Lead the way in water efficiency and sustainability

Food and beverage companies are more sensitive to consumer concerns about the sustainable use of water and energy than most industries. This creates a growing pressure to meet and surpass environmental goals and charters, with corporate responsibility playing a pivotal role in business development. Water for Food & Beverage highlights the links between efficient water management and improved energy and water consumption. Find out how using the right technology solution can help manufacturers cut down on their process water requirements, promoting efficiency throughout the plant.

Improve wastewater treatment standards

Regulations for wastewater disposal are tightening, putting pressure on food and beverage companies to lessen the biological load in their wastewater streams. Polluters face heavy fines, and the risk of public disapproval if local communities are affected. This report showcases the technologies that will allow food and beverage plants to meet discharge quality standards in a cost-effective way, also opening up opportunities to reuse wastewater as feed water for boilers, equipment cleaning and other ancillary activities.

Generate value from wastewater

There are many prospects for creating value from wastewater, and this report will guide you through the available options. Consider how anaerobic technologies, which produce biogas, can be used in boilers at manufacturing plants, helping to reduce both energy costs and the carbon footprint. Or make emerging approaches part of your long-term outlook, with opportunities in biomass recovery, bioplastics production and microbial fuel cells. This report also shows the potential for generating revenue from wastewater streams through nutrient recovery and biogas.

Who should read this report?

Essential reading for anyone involved with water in the food and beverage sector

Larger water companies: Expand your existing market share, or forge a path into new market sectors. Understand customer processes, and build your technology portfolio so you can offer a complete solution.

Niche water technology providers: Find a route to market and identify the clients that will require more specialised technologies to meet their water management needs. Benefit from advice on how to increase your visibility and successfully build local partnerships in this diverse market.

Food and beverage companies: Discover ways to generate value from your wastewater streams, and create cost-savings through efficient water and wastewater management. Find out which technologies will help cut down on process water requirements, and those that will help you meet discharge quality standards.

Investors and consultants: Research the innovative technologies that can help companies meet water efficiency and environmental sustainability targets. Use our estimated growth forecasts to plan your portfolio of green investments.


Exchange rates used in this publication

Executive summary

Global water technology market for food and beverage, 2011 and 2020

Market challenges


Food and beverage industry diagram: full summary

1. Introduction to the food and beverage industry
1.1 The food and beverage industry
1.2 Food and beverage industry subsectors
Figure 1.1 Food industry subsectors
Figure 1.2 Beverage industry subsectors
1.2.1 Food and beverage generic manufacturing steps
Figure 1.3 Generic food and beverage processing steps for fruit/vegetables and meat raw materials Receipt of raw materials Primary grading/screening/processing Intermediary storage Primary cleaning/washing Sorting, grading and inspection Product preparation Product processing Further processing Packaging
1.3 The role of water in food and beverage plants
1.3.1 Water consumption in food and beverage plants
Figure 1.4 Water consuming activities in food and beverage plants
Figure 1.5 Water consumption in beverage plants
Figure 1.6 Water consumption in selected food processing plants
Figure 1.7 Water consumption in vegetable and fruit processing plants
Figure 1.8 Water consumption in meat processing plants
1.3.2 Wastewater characteristics
Figure 1.9 Variations in wastewater contaminants
Figure 1.10 Discharge limits for wastewater generated by the food and beverage industry
Figure 1.11 Wastewater characteristics according to food and beverage subsectors
1.4 Manufacturing processes of food and beverage products
1.4.1 Dairy subsector
Figure 1.12 Wastewater generating activities
Figure 1.13 Standardised processing steps for butter and cheese Raw material reception Clarification, separation and standardisation Pasteurisation and cooling of milk products Butter production Cheese production
1.4.2 Brewery subsector
Figure 1.14 Processing steps for brewing beer Raw materials Wort production Mash filtration (lautering) Wort boiling Wort clarification and cooling Fermentation and maturation Beer processing: filtration Beer processing: carbonation Pasteurisation Packaging High gravity brewing
1.4.3 Fruit and vegetable subsector
Figure 1.15 Fruit and vegetable processing steps Reception of fruit and vegetable raw materials Temporary storage Washing Fruit and vegetable sorting Skin removal or peeling Size reduction Blanching
Figure 1.16 Blanching temperature and time for selected vegetables Cooling Canning Packaging
1.4.4 Sugar subsector
Figure 1.17 Processing steps for sugar cane and sugar beets Reception of raw materials Washing and extraction of cane Washing and extraction of beets Clarification/purification Evaporation and crystallisation Sugar refining Distillery
1.4.5 Meat and poultry subsector: Meat processing plants
Figure 1.18 Bovine and porcine processing steps Stunning, sticking and bleeding Primary processing Evisceration and preparation Rendering
1.4.6 Meat and poultry subsector: Poultry processing plants
Figure 1.19 Poultry processing steps Pre-processing Slaughtering, bleeding and scalding Further processing Evisceration Storing and packaging Rendering
1.4.7 Fish processing subsector
Figure 1.20 Fish processing steps Material reception Preparation Product processing Product finalisation By-products
1.4.8 Vegetable oil subsector
Figure 1.21 Vegetable oil processing steps Raw material reception Extraction Palm oil extraction Washing, pressing and clarification Conditioning Degumming Refinement Modification processes
1.5 Aquaculture sector
1.5.1 Fish farming Intensive systems Semi-intensive systems Extensive systems
1.5.2 Cultivation activities
Figure 1.22 Typical production cycle at an aquacultue operation Preparation and stocking Start feeding On-growing Harvesting Cleaning
1.6 Water:product ratios for the food and beverage industry
1.6.1 Water consumption in European food manufacturing
1.6.2 Water consumption during the processing of meat and fish
Figure 1.23 Water used to process 1 kg of a carcass in European slaughterhouses
Figure 1.24 Volume of water used to process 1 kg of raw fish in Scandinavian fisheries
Figure 1.25 Volume of water used to process 1 kg of raw animal by-product material in European countries
1.6.3 Water consumption during the processing of fruit and vegetables
Figure 1.26 Amount of water used to produce 1 kg of processed fruit and vegetables, by method of preservation
Figure 1.27 Amount of water used in the processing of tomatoes in Italy in 2003
1.6.4 Water consumption in the dairy industry
Figure 1.28 Volume of water required to produce 1 kg of dairy products, in selected European countries
1.6.5 Water consumption during the production of sugar and starch products
Figure 1.29 Volume of water required to produce 1 kg of starch
Figure 1.30 Volume of water required to produce 1 kg of sugar from sugar beet
1.6.6 Water consumption in beverage manufacturing
Figure 1.31 Average volume of water required to produce 1 kg of beverage, 2009
1.6.7 Water consumption in Brazilian food and beverage manufacturing
Figure 1.32 Volume of water used to process 1 kg of raw material, for selected F&B sectors in Brazil
Figure 1.33 Volume of water required to produce 1 kg of raw material, for selected F&B sectors in Brazil
1.6.8 Wastewater from food and beverage manufacturing Wastewater from European food and beverage manufacturing Wastewater produced from the processing of meat and fish
Figure 1.34 Wastewater produced during the processing of 1 kg of carcass, in European countries
Figure 1.35 Wastewater produced during the rendering of 1 kg of selected raw materials, in European countries Wastewater produced during the manufacturing of dairy products
Figure 1.36 Wastewater produced during manufacture of selected dairy products in Scandinavian dairies Wastewater produced during the manufacture of vegetable oil products
Figure 1.37 Wastewater produced in the production of oil in European countries Wastewater produced during the manufacture of starch products
Figure 1.38 Wastewater produced during manufacture of starch in Austria from selected sources Wastewater from the production of food in the U.S.
Figure 1.39 Volume of wastewater produced by the slaughter of selected animals in U.S. slaughterhouses
Figure 1.40 Wastewater produced from manufacturing milk products in the U.S.
Figure 1.41 Volume of water required to process 1 kg of selected fruits and vegetables in the U.S.
1.7 Water volumes for the food and beverage industry
1.7.1 Water use in the United States
Figure 1.42 Volume of industrial self-supplied water in the U.S., 2000-2005
1.7.2 Wastewater discharge in the United States
Figure 1.43 Average wastewater output of U.S. F&B manufacturing facilities by sectors, 2010
1.7.3 Water use in Australia
Figure 1.44 Water use and supply in the Australian F&B and tobacco industry, 2009
1.7.4 Water use in the United Kingdom
Figure 1.45 Water consumption in the UK F&B / tobacco industries, and % of total industrial consumption
1.7.5 An estimate of total water use for the food and beverage industry
Figure 1.46 Estimates of global food and beverage water use in 2012

2. Drivers for water efficiency
2.1 Brand protection
2.1.1 The sustainability factor
2.1.2 The risk factor
2.1.3 Voluntary initiatives United Nations CEO Water Mandate Beverage Industry Environmental Roundtable (BIER) World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) The Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI) The Water Disclosure Project (CDP Water Disclosure) Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS) ISO International Organisation for Standardisation NSF International – The Public Health and Safety Company Codex Alimentarius Commission
2.2 Water scarcity
2.2.1 The limited resource factor
2.2.2 The cost factor
2.3 Regulations
2.3.1 The scarcity factor
2.3.2 The regulatory framework Water abstraction regulations Process water quality standards Wastewater discharge standards Adoption of universal regulations at plant sites
2.4 Regulatory standards
2.4.1 Process water quality
2.4.2 Industrial wastewater discharge standards Australia
Figure 2.1 National acceptance guidelines for discharge of F&B industrial waste into sewers The European Union
Figure 2.2 Requirements for discharge from urban WWTPs to “normal areas”
Figure 2.3 Requirements for discharge from urban WWTPs to “sensitive areas” United States of America
Direct discharges
Figure 2.4 Existing effluent guidelines for food and beverage industrial categories
Figure 2.5 ELGs for existing sources in the dairy, grain mills and sugar categories, according to BPT
Indirect discharges

3. Water management and technologies
3.1 Water management at food and beverage plants
3.1.1 Water balance
Figure 3.1 Water balance schematic
3.1.2 Food and beverage process water efficiency Leaks Optimising flow rate Process controls
3.1.3 Cleaning water efficiency Design and layout of processing equipment Dry cleaning Trigger-operated controls for hoses High-pressure cleaning systems Clean-in-place (CIP) systems Efficient product changeovers Crate washers
3.1.4 Utility water efficiency Cooling tower and boiler blowdown Cooling tower operability Sealing water equipment
3.1.5 Efficiency in ancillary water use
3.1.6 Rainwater/stormwater harvesting
3.1.7 Water reuse Reuse of condensate Membrane technologies for water reuse
Figure 3.2 Food and beverage industry diagram: technologies and subsectors
3.2 Process and utility water technologies
Figure 3.3 Technologies used for process water and utility water
3.2.1 Screening, clarification, filtration and softening technologies Screening Clarifiers Multimedia filtration
Figure 3.4 Multimedia filtration tank Water softening
3.2.2 Membrane technologies Microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) Nanofiltration (NF) Reverse osmosis (RO) Ion exchange (IX)
3.2.3 Clean-in-place (CIP) technologies
3.2.4 Disinfection technologies
Figure 3.5 Comparison of disinfectants Chlorine Chlorine dioxide UV radiation Sodium hypochlorite
Figure 3.6 Electrochemical reactions in an OSG’s electrolytic cells Ozonation technologies
3.2.5 Deionising technologies Two-stage deionisation Continuous electrodeionisation (CEDI)
3.2.6 Multi-technology solutions
3.3 Wastewater treatment
3.3.1 Screen filter technologies
3.3.2 Clarifiers
3.3.3 Flotation
3.3.4 Chemical precipitation for phosphorus removal
3.3.5 Aerobic treatment technologies
Figure 3.7 Evaluation of aerobic treatments Aerobic treatment units (ATUs) Moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) Sequencing batch reactor (SBR)
Figure 3.8 The five basic phases in SBR systems Membrane bioreactors (MBR)
Figure 3.9 Externally pressurised cross-flow MBR configuration
Figure 3.10 Submerged MBR configuration Towards zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technologies Anaerobic digester technologies
3.3.6 Industry example: Wastewater treatment at a dairy processing plant (Indonesia)
Figure 3.11 Raw wastewater characteristics
3.4 Water reuse technologies
3.4.1 Water softening: Crystallisation pellet reactor
3.4.2 Industry example: Water reuse at a pork processing plant (Lamballe, France)
Figure 3.12 Increase in plant capacity, 2004–2006
3.5 Sludge management
3.5.1 Thickening and dewatering technologies Mechanical sludge thickening Sludge dewatering
3.5.2 Sludge stabilisation technologies Lime stabilisation Chemical stabilisation
Figure 3.13 Chemical stabilisation Saphyr™
3.5.3 Thermal hydrolysis and biological treatment
3.5.4 Sludge drying technologies Thermal drying Solar drying Hydrothermal oxidation
Figure 3.14 Thermal oxidation Incineration
Figure 3.15 Cross-section of a multiple hearth furnace
3.6 Gaining value from wastewater
3.6.1 Anaerobic treatment/biogas generating technologies
Figure 3.16 Comparison on anaerobic and aerobic treatment Continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)
Figure 3.17 The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) Expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) Internal circulation reactor (IC)
3.6.2 Case study: Treatment of Heineken brewery wastewater (UK)
Figure 3.18 Discharge limits and biogas volume Anaerobic flotation reactor: BIOPAQ AFR
Figure 3.19 Typical influent characteristics Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR)
3.6.3 Biogas
3.6.4 Case study: Treatment of sauerkraut wastewater at the Meistratzheim WWTP (France)
Figure 3.20 Meistratzheim WWTP upgrade facts
Figure 3.21 Technologies used for different processes in the WWTP
Figure 3.22 Characteristics of the sauerkraut wastewater
Figure 3.23 Different loads of sauerkraut liquid which undergo anaerobic treatment
Figure 3.24 The quantity of biogas produced by anaerobic treatment of sludge
3.6.5 Nutrient/element recovery technologies Nutrient recovery: Fertilisers (Pearl process)
Figure 3.25 Pearl® nutrient recovery process Case study: Nutrient recovery process at the Nansemond plant (Virginia, USA)
Figure 3.26 Pearl® nutrient recovery process at Nansemond WWTP
3.6.6 Element recovery: Bioplastics Standard method for bioplastics production Wastewater feedstock method for bioplastics production
3.6.7 Element recovery: Microbial fuel cells (MFC) Electricity generation: Microbial fuel cells (MFC) Microbial electrolysis cells/Bioelectrochemically assisted microbial reactor (MEC/BEAMR) process
3.7 Technologies for aquaculture
Figure 3.27 Aquaculture wastewater technology options
3.7.1 Kaldnes™ Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS)
Figure 3.28 Traditional versus improved cultivation methods
3.7.2 RAS treatment technologies Intake water treatment Water conditioning in flow-through systems Wastewater treatment Sludge treatment

4. Market analysis
4.1 Market division / segmentation
Figure 4.1 Global food and beverage water technology market by country, 2011 and 2020
Figure 4.2 Global food and beverage water technology market by technology, 2011 and 2020
4.2 Key and emerging players
Figure 4.3 Key and emerging players in the water for food and beverage industry
4.3 Regional trends
4.3.1 F&B company expansion plans
Figure 4.4 Countries mentioned in the expansion plans of 50 leading F&B companies, grouped by region
4.3.2 Detailed regional financial information from the largest companies
Figure 4.5 Total revenues of major food and beverage companies 2007-2011 Kraft Foods regional trends
Figure 4.6 Kraft Foods % growth in net revenues by region, 2008-2011
Figure 4.7 Kraft Foods net revenues and percentage growth by region, 2008-2011 Campbell Soup Company regional trends
Figure 4.8 Campbell Soup Company % growth in net sales by region, 2008-2011
Figure 4.9 Campbell Soup Company net sales and % growth by region, 2008-2011 PepsiCo regional trends
Figure 4.10 PepsiCo % growth in net revenues by region, 2008-2011
Figure 4.11 PepsiCo net revenues and % growth by region, 2008-2011 Anheuser-Busch InBev regional trends
Figure 4.12 Anheuser-Busch InBev % growth in revenues by region, 2010-2011
Figure 4.13 Anheuser-Busch InBev revenues and % growth by region, 2008-2011 Diageo regional trends
Figure 4.14 Diageo % growth in net sales by region, 2008-2011
Figure 4.15 Diageo net sales and % growth by region, 2008-2011 Tyson Foods regional trends Nestlé regional trends
Figure 4.16 Nestlé % growth in sales by region, 2008-2010
Figure 4.17 Nestlé total sales and % growth by region, 2008-2010 Coca Cola Company regional trends
Figure 4.18 Coca-Cola Company % growth in total net revenues by region, 2007-2011
Figure 4.19 Coca Cola Company total net revenues and % growth by region, 2007-2011 Unilever regional trends
Figure 4.20 Unilever % growth in turnover by region, 2008-2011
Figure 4.21 Unilever turnover and % growth by region, 2008-2011
4.4 Market forecast
Figure 4.22 Global food and beverage water technology market forecast by country / region, 2009-2020
Figure 4.23 Global food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
Figure 4.24 Africa food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
Figure 4.25 East Asia and Pacific food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
Figure 4.26 Latin America and Caribbean food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
Figure 4.27 Middle East and North Africa food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
Figure 4.28 North America food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
Figure 4.29 South Asia food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
Figure 4.30 Western Europe food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
Figure 4.31 Europe and Central Asia food and beverage water technology market forecast, 2009-2020
4.5 F&B company sustainability measures
4.5.1 Water reuse Cleaning Cooling Irrigation Uses for food
4.5.2 Energy generation
4.5.3 Other water saving strategies Water-free technologies Water saving technologies Water meters Harvesting rainwater Maintenance Employee water awareness Sharing best practice Understanding water use
Figure 4.32 Summary of food and beverage company sustainability plans
4.6 Food and beverage company water:product ratios
4.6.1 Current water:product ratios
Figure 4.33 Food and beverage company water:product ratio, most recent available year
4.6.2 Baseline and target water:product ratios
Figure 4.34 Food and beverage company water:product ratio, baseline, target and most recent year
4.7 Food and beverage company annual water use
Figure 4.35 Food and beverage company annual water use, most recent available year (data)
Figure 4.36 Food and beverage company annual water use, most recent available year
Figure 4.37 Beverage only company annual water use, baseline year and most recent available year
Figure 4.38 Food and beverage company annual water use, baseline year and most recent available year
4.8 Food and beverage company profiles
4.8.1 Anheuser-Busch InBev profile
4.8.2 Arla Foods amba profile
4.8.3 Bacardi Ltd profile
4.8.4 Brown-Forman Corporation profile
4.8.5 Campbell Soup Co. profile
4.8.6 Cargill Inc. profile
4.8.7 Carlsberg Group profile
4.8.8 Cola-Cola Co. profile
4.8.9 ConAgra Foods, Inc. profile
4.8.10 Constellation Brands profile
4.8.11 Danone profile
4.8.12 Dean Foods profile
4.8.13 Diageo profile
4.8.14 Dole Food Co. Inc. profile
4.8.15 Dr Oetker profile
4.8.16 Dr Pepper Snapple Group profile
4.8.17 Ferrero profile
4.8.18 Friesland Campina profile
4.8.19 General Mills profile
4.8.20 Grupo Modelo profile
4.8.21 Gruppo Campari profile
4.8.22 H.J.Heinz Company profile
4.8.23 Heineken profile
4.8.24 Hershey Co. profile
4.8.25 Hormel Foods profile
4.8.26 ITO EN Group profile
4.8.27 J.M. Smucker Co. profile
4.8.28 JBS USA profile
4.8.29 Kellogg’s profile
4.8.30 Kraft Foods profile
4.8.31 Maple Leaf Foods profile
4.8.32 Mars Inc. profile
4.8.33 McCain Foods Ltd profile
4.8.34 Mead Johnson profile
4.8.35 Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton Group profile
4.8.36 Molson Coors profile
4.8.37 Nestlé profile
4.8.38 PepsiCo profile
4.8.39 Pernod Ricard profile
4.8.40 Pilgrim’s Pride Corp. profile
4.8.41 Premier Foods plc profile
4.8.42 Red Bull profile
4.8.43 SAB Miller profile
4.8.44 San Miguel Corporation profile
4.8.45 Saputo Inc. profile
4.8.46 Sara Lee Corp. profile
4.8.47 Smithfield Foods Company profile
4.8.48 Theo Muller profile
4.8.49 Tyson Foods Inc. profile
4.8.50 Unilever Group profile
4.8.51 Fomento Economico Mexicano (FEMSA) profile

5. Accessing the market
5.1 The approach to entering the water for food and beverage market
Figure 5.1 Food and beverage industry diagram: market access & opportunities and subsectors
5.2 Technologies dominating the water for food and beverage market
5.3 Openness of the food and beverage market to new technologies
5.3.1 Decision making for installing new technologies
5.4 Fully integrated solutions versus separate technologies
5.5 Provision of additional services
5.6 Market dynamics
5.6.1 The players in the water for food and beverage market
5.7 Dominance and success of market players
5.7.1 Dominance of established water companies
5.7.2 Smaller players and local markets
5.7.3 Collaborations within the F&B industry
5.7.4 Partnership arrangements and agreements
5.7.5 Procurement process
5.7.6 Market size

6. Water for food and beverage market opportunities
6.1 Overview of market opportunities
6.1.1 Opportunities in water efficiency and sustainability
6.1.2 Opportunities in improved wastewater treatment
6.1.3 Opportunities in gaining value from wastewater
6.1.4 Opportunities in emerging technologies
6.1.5 Opportunities in process water
6.1.6 Opportunities in water reuse
6.2 Market opportunity: Process and utility feedwater
6.2.1 Drivers for using water efficient technologies/strategies
6.3 Market opportunity: Wastewater treatment
6.3.1 Opportunities in wastewater discharge requirements
6.3.2 Challenges when working in developing nations
6.4 Market opportunity: Water reuse
6.4.1 The water reuse trend in the food and beverage industry
6.4.2 Factors limiting the adoption of water reuse
6.4.3 Water reuse opportunities at plant sites
6.4.4 The potential for water reuse in food and beverage products
6.5 Market opportunities: Value from wastewater
6.5.1 Market opportunities: Biogas generation Adoption of the bioenergy market Drivers Use of biogas at F&B plants Limiting factors affecting the use of biogas at plant sites Challenges affecting the bioenergy market opportunity Food and beverage companies that are customers in this market Water technology companies active in the bioenergy market
6.5.2 Market opportunity: Nutrient recovery Overview of the nutrient recovery market The nutrient recovery market trend Approach to market entry Challenges facing the nutrient recovery market Solutions Best positioned companies for nutrient recovery opportunities
6.5.3 Market opportunity: Element recovery Opportunities in bioplastics production Opportunities in microbial fuel cells
6.5.4 Market opportunity: Energy from biomass



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