Global Markets and Technologies for Natural Gas Storage

 Published On: Jan, 2016 |    No of Pages: 142 |  Published By: BCC Research | Format: PDF
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The global natural gas storage market will reach $796.4 billion in 2020, up from $562.2 billion in 2015, registering a CAGR of 7.2% for the period of 2015-2020.

This report provides:

-An assessment and quantification of the current global natural gas storage market
-Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020
-Evaluation of the future global use of storage as a means of primary energy production
-Discussion of important current and potential environmental regulations that may affect the growth of this market
-Examination of pricing trends for key North American and European wholesale gas markets
-Assessment of the impacts of new and proposed infrastructure projects
-A detailed patent analysis
-Profiles of the top players in the field

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The goals of this report on the demand for natural gas storage infrastructure are to: anticipate gas supply drivers and trends, including technology shifts; evaluate pricing trends for key North American and European wholesale gas markets; assess the impacts of new and proposed infrastructure on liquefied natural gas (LNG) and underground gas storage projects, and determine their effects on the market; quantify the impact of new technologies, industry structure, business trends and regulatory change; identify the key structural and strategic factors that will drive growth and opportunity in the LNG and natural gas storage industry to 2020; and provide details on the various technologies involved in LNG and natural gas storage, including the critical stages of integration, and how they relate to the global natural gas trade and demand pattern.

The objective of this market research report is to provide a balanced and detailed evaluation of the current status of the global natural gas storage infrastructure industry.

More than 98% of all LNG traded worldwide is transported by ship. Driven by increasing global demand and decreasing costs of natural gas, is it any wonder that LNG storage and shipping are being thrown into the limelight? More and more, industry players are realizing that LNG storage and shipping is more than just an integral part of the LNG supply chain. To put it simply, getting storage and shipping right is critical to the natural gas industry.

The consumption of natural gas varies day-to-day and month-to-month. Weather and the varying demands of electric power generation translate into usage fluctuations. Seasonally the fluctuation is as much as 50%, and short term it can be even more variable. Exact timing, location and volume of peak demand are unpredictable. Since natural gas is not produced in a way that corresponds to these fluctuations, surplus gas is pumped during slumps in usage into numerous storage facilities (underground and LNG) for use during inevitable surges in consumption. In international trade, LNG storage provides the vital link between gas producers and consuming countries. This allows continuous service even when production or pipeline transportation services cannot meet demand.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
The tension between Russia and its neighbor the Ukraine regarding the price of delivered Russian gas to Ukraine still raises the prospect of instability in supply to Europe of Russian gas. About 60% of this supply transits through Ukraine. In such circumstances, as was starkly demonstrated by the earlier gas crises of 2006 and 2009 and amplified during the cold conditions of February 2012 and March/April 2013, storage is critical for the security of supply of gas. This security can be guaranteed, of course, only if the storage sites have the maximum working gas available at the beginning of winter. In the case of Turkey, for example, although the crisis had no immediate fallout in Turkey itself, the country is a major buyer of Russian natural gas and the question mark hovering over Russian supplies brought forward the importance of gas storage in Turkey and national contingency plans.

Natural gas storage therefore is a strategic component for a mature natural gas infrastructure. Storage is required to accommodate daily and seasonal fluctuations in natural gas demand, including unforeseen demand spikes, and to mitigate unplanned interruptions in natural gas supply. Storage facilities offering high injection and withdrawal rates are also needed to moderate short-term volatility in natural gas prices. Storage is strategic in promoting a reliable natural gas system. Traditionally, natural gas has been a seasonal fuel. That is, demand for natural gas is usually higher during the winter, partly because it is used for heat in residential and commercial settings. Stored natural gas plays a vital role in ensuring that any excess supply delivered during the summer months is available to meet the increased demand of the winter months. However, with the recent trend towards natural gas-fired electric generation, demand for natural gas during the summer months is now increasing (due to the demand for electricity to power air conditioners and the like). Natural gas in storage also serves as insurance against any unforeseen accidents, natural disasters or other occurrences that may affect the production or delivery of natural gas.

Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it offers in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realization of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade.

The major goals of this study are therefore:

-To assess and quantify the current global underground natural gas, compressed natural gas and LNG storage market and demand.
-To investigate and evaluate the future global use of storage as a means of primary energy production in the period 2015 to 2020.
-To assess the various technologies needed to facilitate the development of natural gas storage globally.
-To track the evolution of the storage in the natural gas supply chain and detect any fragmentation in the chain.
-To evaluate and quantify the storage requirements in international LNG trade.
-To determine the extent of the impact of the natural gas storage industry on the petroleum and transportation industries.
-To evaluate the economic, industrial and environmental benefits of storage.
-To estimate, rationalize and review natural gas storage as a means of monetizing stranded gas resources and its effect on the rate of depletion of global natural gas resources and how technological progress will prolong the decline point of the resource.
-To analyze and quantify the increasing strategic importance of natural gas storage as an energy conservation measure for the industrialized countries of the world and as a major revenue generator for the LNG exporting countries.
-To assess the growth of LNG trade and the relevance of storage in globalization and integration.
-To assess how new technology developed by the industry has greatly reduced the cost of storing and delivering natural gas and LNG to customers.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
Natural gas, a colorless, odorless, gaseous hydrocarbon, may be stored in a number of different ways. It is most commonly held in inventory underground under pressure in three types of facilities. These are: (1) depleted reservoirs in oil and/or gas fields, (2) aquifers, and (3) salt cavern formations. Natural gas can also be stored above ground in (1) specially constructed cargo containment systems in liquid form (LNG), (2) when delivered it is stored in tanks at the liquefaction and receiving terminal, and (3) in tank farms that logistically can play an important role in helping to reduce the impact of demand spikes on power generation.

Each storage type has its own physical characteristics (porosity, permeability, retention capability) and economics (site preparation and maintenance costs, deliverability rates and cycling capability), which govern its suitability to particular applications. Two of the most important characteristics of an underground storage reservoir or LNG tank storage are its capacity to hold natural gas for future use and the rate at which gas inventory can be withdrawn — its deliverability rate or send-out capacity.

Most existing underground natural gas storage sites in the United States, Asia and Europe are in depleted natural gas or oil fields that are close to consumption centers. Conversion of an oil or gas field from production to storage duty takes advantage of existing wells, gathering systems and pipeline connections. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs are therefore the most commonly used underground storage sites because of their wide availability and low development costs.

In some areas, most notably the Midwestern United States, natural aquifers have been converted to gas storage reservoirs. An aquifer is suitable for gas storage if the water bearing sedimentary rock formation is overlaid with an impermeable cap rock. While the geology of aquifers is similar to depleted oil and gas production fields, their use in gas storage usually requires more base (cushion) gas and greater monitoring of withdrawal and injection performance. Deliverability rates may be enhanced by the presence of an active water drive.

Salt caverns provide very high withdrawal and injection rates relative to their working gas capacity. Base gas requirements are relatively low. The large majority of salt cavern storage facilities have been developed in salt dome formations located in the Gulf Coast states.

There have been efforts to use abandoned mines to store natural gas, with at least one such facility having been in use in the United States in the past. Further, the potential for commercial use of hard-rock cavern storage is currently undergoing testing. None are commercially operational as natural gas storage sites at the present time.

By the end of the decade U.S. LNG exports will rival those of the largest exporter (Qatar) today. Pipeline exports from the U.S. to Canada and Mexico will be of the same magnitude as the LNG exports, propelling the U.S. as the No. 1 or 2 natural gas-exporting country in the world after Russia. When U.S. LNG exports are combined with those of Qatar and Australia, an LNG global glut is inevitable by 2020, which will challenge the oil indexation as the basis of pricing LNG. Equally and even of high importance, tolling arrangements are the basis of a large proportion of the U.S. LNG offtake and which does not impose a restriction on destination. From the outset, starting in early 2016, U.S. LNG inevitably will almost serve as the basis of a much stronger global spot market, as U.S. LNG exports escalate to levels that can rival if not overtake Qatar as the number one global LNG exporter.

Compressed natural gas vessels specifically, have always presented challenges in the areas of safety, weight, capacity, durability and cost. In fact, currently, the fuel tank storage on a CNG vehicle is its most expensive single component. Due to the fact that storage vessels play such an important role in natural gas powered vehicles, addressing this issue has been an important goal for technological innovation. The storage vessels are segmented into metallic, metallic composites and nonmetallic. Recent technological breakthroughs now mean that CNG tanks/cylinders are available in up to five different types including Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV and Type V. CNG tanks/cylinders can now be manufactured using a number of different materials such as carbon fiber, metals and glass fiber. The greatest challenges in the CNG vehicle market penetration are the availability of refueling infrastructure, raw material prices and the high price of composite tanks. However, research and development of new products is creating more sustainable products and enhancing the competitive position in the market for companies involved in CNG storage tank production.

This BCC Research biorefinery technologies report is designed to satisfy the information required by anyone concerned with the development of agriculture, energy and fuels, including:

Technology management and personnel.
New business/development management and personnel.
Merchant project investors and developers.
Utility procurement personnel.
Generation asset owners looking to diversify their portfolios.
Energy market advisors.
Veteran energy professionals.
Attorneys and counsel to the energy industry.
Managers and directors of renewable energy.
Process engineers.
Plant operations engineers.
Graduate engineers.
Supervisors.
Operators.
Chemists and technicians.
Venture capital investors.
Commodity brokers and analysts.
Biofuel producers.
Trade-commodity financiers.
Investors.
Fund managers.
Chemical manufactures.
Commodity inspection and surveyors.
Commodity exchanges.
Electricity generating companies.
Government officials and regulators.
Industry analysts.
Energy and environmental researchers.
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Automobile manufacturers.
Project developers.
Government experts from developed and developing countries.
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Financial intermediaries (e.g., banks, insurance companies).
Persons in the sensor and monitoring markets.
Law firms.
Accounting and auditing firms.
Marketing managers.
Senior petrochemical executives.
Oil and gas majors.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
BCC Research expects a consistent increase in global natural gas usage with more than 250 years of global supply now well established, and emerging exploration potential, especially in shale gas. BCC Research analysis expects global natural gas demand to increase by 65% from 2015 to 2030, reaching 27% of the primary energy mix globally and within that, strong growth in LNG. BCC Research expects LNG demand to double again to reach 550 million tons by 2030. Meeting this demand growth will require substantial investment in developing storage infrastructure — potentially more than $1.3 trillion. Natural gas storages will ensure continued innovation and enhance interdependency between supplier and consumer centers.

This report is divided into eleven chapters.
Chapter One presents the introduction. The study goal and objectives are identified and the reasons for doing the study advanced. It also provides the contribution of the study and for whom, the scope and format, methodology and intended audience. The credentials of the analyst are presented and the related BCC Research reports listed. Chapter Two presents a summary of the report, including a summary table and figure which presents some key findings from the study

Chapter Three presents an overview of the natural gas storage industry. The overview describes the importance of the natural gas storage infrastructure in relation to the overall global energy economy, including a brief history and important indications for the industry. Key findings from the study are presented.

Chapter Four quantifies the demand for underground natural gas storage by type including aquifers, cavern, and depleted oil and gas fields. These products are each quantified with global and regional forecasts made up to 2020.

Chapter Five quantifies the demand for above ground natural gas storage by type including LNG tanker, merchant LNG and compressed natural gas. These products are each quantified with global and regional forecasts made up to 2020.

Chapter Six presents the demand for natural gas storage by application such as international LNG trade, seasonal balancing, system optimization and security of supply, arbitrage, transit backup and direct end-users and merchant LNG (now increasingly being used in heavy-duty vehicle transportation) and peak shaving. These are quantified with global and regional forecasts made to 2020.

Chapter Seven presents the demand for natural gas storage infrastructure by technology covering a detailed analysis of the containment systems. It assesses and evaluates the containment technology by type with global and regional breakdown and forecasts to 2020. An evaluation of the demand for natural gas storage intensity by type of storage technology is presented. The natural gas storage industry giants are identified and their market shares presented. The technology developments by industry giants are assessed, including company expertise and know-how, and leaders in research and development are also profiled.

Chapter Eight analyzes the international scene and quantifies global energy demand, population growth, natural gas reserves, production and consumption. It quantifies the growth of unconventional gas production, the price of natural gas and crude oil and looks at the shifts in major metals prices.

Chapter Nine analyzes the structure of the storage industry, including the driving forces of the industry. Important strategies for staying competitive and important shifts in the industry are assessed. Trade practices of the industry and business and the impact of storage on the petroleum and power industries are discussed. Concentration factors, valorization, and company market shares are presented. Other aspects covered in this section include competition and market segmentation/fragmentation.

Chapter Ten discusses the government environmental/energy regulation scene as it applies to natural gas storage infrastructure and business. The report also describes the environmental regulatory changes and agencies involved, including industry compliance and quantification of economic effects.

Chapter Eleven presents company profiles of more than 100 companies involved in the natural gas storage infrastructure, and business are profiled with highlights of their major activities in the storage business including the company name, telephone number, fax number, and contact name and number.

METHODOLOGY
In this report both historic and current data have been used in the natural gas storage infrastructure demand analysis. The results of the calculations presented here are therefore based on two components: a historic analysis of the global natural gas storage infrastructure demand in the period 2012 to 2015, demand for 2015 and forecasted demand for the 2015 to 2020 timeframe.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Information sources include trade data (national and international), company publicity literature, conference reports, world trade technical journals and interviews with company representatives.
Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION - Complimentary 8 $0
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE AND FORMAT
METHODOLOGY
INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST’S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER

Chapter- 2: SUMMARY 2 $250
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MARKET VALUE
LNG TANKER TRADE VALUE
UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE MARKET VALUE
RECEIVING/LIQUEFACTION TERMINAL STORAGE MARKET VALUE
MERCHANT LNG MARKET VALUE

Chapter- 3: INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 22 $784
WHY STORE NATURAL GAS?
THE VALUE AND IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN
TYPES OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE FACILITIES
DELIVERABILITY
HISTORY OF THE NATURAL GAS STORAGE INDUSTRY
ECONOMICS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE
FUTURE OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE
OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE

Chapter- 4: DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE 25     $891

GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DEPLETED OIL & GAS FIELD STORAGE
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY TYPE
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CAVERN STORAGE BY TYPE
Table 23 : DEMAND FOR GLOBAL UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020

Chapter- 5: DEMAND FOR ABOVE GROUND STORAGE 43 $1532
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG TANKER STORAGE
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT LNG STORAGE BY REGION
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE BY REGION
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY REGION
DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG) STORAGE
Table 49 : DEMAND FOR GLOBAL ABOVE GROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020

Chapter- 6: DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION 16 $570
DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION AND REGION
SEASONAL BALANCING
SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION AND SECURITY OF SUPPLY
ARBITRAGE, TRANSIT BACK-UP AND DIRECT END-USE
LNG TRADE
DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS IN TRANSPORT
Table 92 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020

Chapter- 7: TECHNOLOGY     42 $1496
DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND CONTAINMENT BY POROSITY
DEMAND FOR LNG CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY
CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
COMPANY MARKET SHARES
Table 104 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020

Chapter- 8: INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW 24 $855
POPULATION
GLOBAL GDP AND GDP PER CAPITA
GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PROVEN RESERVES BY REGION
GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY TYPE
GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION BY REGION
INTERNATIONAL CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATES
NATURAL GAS AND OIL PRICES
THE METAL MARKET

Chapter- 9: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE     21 $748
BARRIERS TO FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT
CONCENTRATION OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE BY GEOGRAPHY AND TYPE
CONCENTRATION OF ABOVE GROUND STORAGE BY REGION AND TYPE
CONCENTRATION BY GEOLOGY
CONCENTRATION IN INTERCONTINENTAL LNG STORAGE TANKER TRADE
UNDERGROUND STORAGE
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE
REVENUE STREAMS
MARKET CONCENTRATION BY REGION
NATURAL GAS STORAGE TRENDS
Table 151 : STORAGE ALONG THE NATURAL GAS CHAIN

Chapter- 10: GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND LEGISLATION     4 $143
ACTIVITIES OF U.S. LNG REGULATORY AGENCIES
INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY ASPECTS ON UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE
ACTIVITIES OF REGULATORY AGENCIES OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES

Chapter- 11: COMPANY PROFILES     71 $2529
NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE REGULATORY AGENCIES
LNG RECEIVING TERMINAL OPERATORS
UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE COMPANIES
LNG STORAGE TANKS AND LNG CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS
OFFSHORE LNG TERMINALS
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS CYLINDER STORAGE
COMPRESSION MACHINERY
ADHESIVES
AIR SEPARATION UNITS
ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES TECHNOLOGIES
BOIL-OFF GAS HANDLING TECHNOLOGIES
COLD BOXES
COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
COUPLING SYSTEMS
CRYOGENIC SYSTEM COMPONENTS
ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNITS
EXPANDERS
FLANGES AND PIPING
FLEXIBLE HOSES/HOSES
FSO/FPSO UNITS
GAS/OIL/WATER SEPARATION UNITS
GAS PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS
HEAT EXCHANGERS/HEAT TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY
INSULATION (CRYOGENIC) SYSTEMS
LNG TANKER BERTH AND LNG LOADING ARMS
LNG PEAK-SHAVING AND SATELLITE SYSTEMS
PIPE SECTIONS
PIPE SUPPORTS
PRESSURE VESSELS (CRYOGENIC)
CRYOGENIC PUMPS
TURBINES
FLOW METERS, FLOW COMPUTERS & FLOW INDICATORS
ANALYZERS, DETECTORS, SENSORS, CONTROLS & INSTRUMENTATION
LNG VALUE CHAIN COMPANIES
NATURAL GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION COMPANIES
SERVICE SUPPLY COMPANIES
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES
INVESTMENT ADVISORY COMPANY
LNG SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS
LNG TANKER OPERATORS
LNG PROCESS TECHNOLOGY LICENSORS
LEGAL ADVISORY SERVICE
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS
FLARE SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
HYDRAULICS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL EQUIPMENT
HYDROGRAPHIC AND METEOROLOGY
LIFTING EQUIPMENT, CRANES AND WINCHES
LIGHTING
LININGS, SEALS, AND GASKETS
PIPELINES AND PIPING COMPONENTS
POWER GENERATION AND PROPULSION MACHINERY
PROCESSING AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS
PROJECT MANAGEMENT, CONSULTANCY AND CERTIFICATION
PUMPS (NON-CRYOGENIC)
RECRUITMENT AND PERSONNEL
ROCK DUMPING
SEISMIC MONITORING
STEEL, SPECIAL METALS AND WELDING
SUPPORT VESSELS, SUPPLY AND CONTAINERS
SURPLUS AND USED EQUIPMENT
SURVIVAL, SAFETY AND PROTECTION
WELL EQUIPMENT

Chapter- 12: APPENDIX CONVERSION TABLES 2 $71
Table A : FREQUENTLY USED CONVERSIONS
Table B : TYPICAL VAPOR-LIQUID CONVERSIONS*
Table C : CONVERSION FACTORS

List of Tables

Summary Table : VALORIZATION OF GAS STORAGE BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2020
Table A : FREQUENTLY USED CONVERSIONS
Table B : TYPICAL VAPOR-LIQUID CONVERSIONS*
Table C : CONVERSION FACTORS
Table 1 : THE REASONS AND NEED FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE
Table 2 : THE USE OF STORAGE FOR SECURITY OF SUPPLY: RISKS COVERED DEPENDING ON CONTROL OF STORAGE CAPACITY
Table 3 : THE "VALUE" OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN
Table 4 : THE IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE IN THE NATURAL GAS VALUE CHAIN
Table 5 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY LOCATION, THROUGH 2020
Table 6 : ABOVE GROUND VERSUS UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE
Table 7 : GLOBAL SHARE OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE FACILITIES BY TYPE, 2015
Table 8 : CHARACTERISTICS OF UGS CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS, 2013
Table 9 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 10 : DEMAND FOR COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE OF TANK TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 11 : DEMAND FOR LNG TANKER, RECEIVING AND LIQUEFACTION TERMINAL STORAGE BY CAPACITY RANGE, THROUGH 2020
Table 12 : THE DELIVERABILITY OF DIFFERENT NATURAL GAS STORAGES
Table 13 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
Table 14 : EVOLUTION OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE IN NUMBERS, 1900-2010
Table 15 : COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN LNG VESSEL
Table 16 : COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN BASE-LOAD LNG REGASIFICATION PLANT
Table 17 : COST COMPONENTS OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE
Table 18 : COST BREAKDOWN OF A MODERN PEAK-SHAVING AND SATELLITE LNG PLANT
Table 19 : COST BREAKDOWN OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS PROJECT
Table 20 : COST BREAKDOWN OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS STORAGE TANKS
Table 21 : NATURAL GAS SUBSTITUTION IN GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Table 22 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY SEGMENT/SECTOR, THROUGH 2020
Table 23 : DEMAND FOR GLOBAL UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
Table 24 : DEMAND FOR GLOBAL DEPLETED OIL & GAS FIELD STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
Table 25 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 26 : NORTH AMERICA DEMAND FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 27 : UNITED STATES WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR OIL/GAS DEPLETED FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 28 : CANADA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 29 : EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 30 : EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 31 : CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 32 : ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 33 : ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED OIL/GAS FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 34 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 35 : NORTH AMERICA DEMAND FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 36 : UNITED STATES WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 37 : EUROPE AND CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 38 : EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 39 : CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR DEPLETED AQUIFER FIELD STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 40 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR GLOBAL CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
Table 41 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 42 : DEMAND FOR NORTH AMERICA NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE OF CAVERN, THROUGH 2020
Table 43 : DEMAND FOR UNITED STATES SALT CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY U.S. REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 44 : DEMAND FOR CANADA CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 45 : DEMAND FOR EUROPE CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 46 : EUROPE'S DEMAND FOR CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 47 : EUROPE'S DEMAND FOR ROCK CAVERN STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 48 : DEMAND BY CIS FOR SALT CAVERN NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 49 : DEMAND FOR GLOBAL ABOVE GROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
Table 50 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
Table 51 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LNG TANKER TRADE STORAGE BY EXPORTING REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 52 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR NORTH AMERICA LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 53 : MAJOR LIQUEFACTION PROJECTS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THROUGH 2020
Table 54 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR EUROPE LNG TANKER STORAGE CAPACITY BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 55 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CIS LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 56 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR ASIA-PACIFIC LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 57 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR ROW LNG TANKER STORAGE BY TYPE OF EXPORTING REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 58 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 59 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR AFRICA LNG TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 60 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MIDDLE EAST TANKER STORAGE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 61 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY. 2015
Table 62 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 63 : NORTH AMERICA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 64 : EUROPE AND CIS WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 65 : ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 66 : ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 67 : LATIN AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 68 : MIDDLE EAST'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 69 : AFRICA WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR LIQUEFACTION PLANT STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 70 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE BY REGION THROUGH 2020
Table 71 : NORTH AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 72 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY OF U.S. FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE, 2015
Table 73 : CANADA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE, 2015
Table 74 : MEXICO’S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE, 2015
Table 75 : EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 76 : EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE BY COUNTRY, 2015
Table 77 : ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE CAPACITY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 78 : ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE BY COUNTRY, 2015
Table 79 : ROW'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR RECEIVING TERMINAL LNG STORAGE CAPACITY BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 80 : ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR REGASIFICATION AND STORAGE BY COUNTRY, 2015
Table 81 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 82 : NORTH AMERICA'S WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 83 : EUROPE WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 84 : ASIA-PACIFIC WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 85 : ROW WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT OR SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 86 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG STORAGE AS A PERCENTAGE OF GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020
Table 87 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 88 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE I STORAGE TANKS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 89 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE II STORAGE TANKS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 90 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR CNG TYPE III/IV STORAGE TANKS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 91 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR TYPE V CNG STORAGE TANKS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 92 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020
Table 93 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020
Table 94 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE FOR SEASONAL BALANCING BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 95 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE FOR SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION AND SECURITY OF SUPPLY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 96 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ARBITRAGE, TRANSIT BACK-UP AND DIRECT END-USE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 97 : DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN INTERNATIONAL AND MERCHANT TRADE, THROUGH 2020
Table 98 : DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE BY EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 99 : DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN LIQUEFACTION AND RECEIVING TERMINALS, THROUGH 2020
Table 100 : DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE IN MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE TRADE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2020
Table 101 : GLOBAL WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR MERCHANT AND SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 102 : DEMAND FOR CNG TANK STORAGE IN TRANSPORT BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 103 : ROW DEMAND FOR GAS STORAGE IN TRANSPORT BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 104 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 105 : DEMAND FOR UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONTAINMENT BY POROSITY TECHNOLOGY
Table 106 : DEMAND FOR CAVERN STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 107 : DEMAND FOR WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR FLUID DEPLETED RESERVOIRS CONTAINMENT BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 108 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MEMBRANE GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY BY MATERIAL TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 109 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LNG TANK STORAGE BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 110 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TANK BY CONTAINMENT MATERIALS, THROUGH 2020
Table 111 : GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE METALLIC TANKS BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 112 : DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE METALLIC COMPOSITE TANKS BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 113 : DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE NONMETALLIC TANKS BY CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 114 : TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF UGS CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS
Table 115 : TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF LNG CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS
Table 116 : TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF SMALL-SCALE LNG STORAGE (SSLNGS) TANK CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS
Table 117 : TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON OF UGS CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS
Table 118 : DEMAND FOR CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020
Table 119 : DEMAND FOR MERCHANT LNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020
Table 120 : DEMAND FOR UGS TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020
Table 121 : DEMAND FOR CNG STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020
Table 122 : DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE TANK TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020
Table 123 : DEMAND FOR LNG STORAGE CARRIER TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY, THROUGH 2020
Table 124 : NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Table 125 : NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS/IMPORTANT APPROACHES
Table 126 : NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE PROCESS/APPLICATION
Table 127 : COMPANY SHARES FOR UGS OPERATING COMPANIES
Table 128 : LNG TANKERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION BY PROJECTED DELIVERY AND CAPACITY, 2015-2020
Table 129 : COMPANY SHARES FOR PRESSURE VESSEL MANUFACTURERS
Table 130 : GLOBAL POPULATION GROWTH, THROUGH 2020
Table 131 : GLOBAL POPULATION GROWTH BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 132 : GLOBAL GDP AND GDP PER CAPITA, THROUGH 2020
Table 133 : GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FEEDSTOCK, THROUGH 2020
Table 134 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES, THROUGH 2020
Table 135 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 136 : ROW'S NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 137 : GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION & PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS, THROUGH 2020
Table 138 : GLOBAL OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 139 : ROW'S OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 140 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION,THROUGH 2020
Table 141 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION,THROUGH 2020
Table 142 : ROW NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 143 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY TYPE,THROUGH 2020
Table 144 : GLOBAL UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 145 : GLOBAL UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY/REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 146 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2020
Table 147 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 148 : YEARLY AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATES FOR CONVERTING FOREIGN CURRENCIES INTO U.S. DOLLARS*
Table 149 : NATURAL GAS PRICES, THROUGH 2020
Table 150 : GLOBAL MARKET FOR METALS USED FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE,THROUGH 2020
Table 151 : STORAGE ALONG THE NATURAL GAS CHAIN
Table 152 : CHALLENGES FOR STORAGE
Table 153 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION AND STORAGE TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 154 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY FOR ABOVE GROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE CONTAINMENT BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 155 : GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY GEOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 156 : CONCENTRATION OF GLOBAL NONGEOLOGIC NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY SECTOR, THROUGH 2020
Table 157 : DEMAND FOR NONGEOLOGIC GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY OTHER SECTORS, THROUGH 2020
Table 158 : DEMAND FOR GEOLOGICAL GLOBAL NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 159 : CONCENTRATED GLOBAL LNG TRADE BY TYPE OF EXPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 160 : CONCENTRATED GLOBAL LNG TRADE BY TYPE OF IMPORTING COUNTRY, THROUGH 2020
Table 161 : WORKING GAS CAPACITY OF UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE, THROUGH 2020
Table 162 : CONCENTRATION OF NATURAL GAS VEHICLE, STORAGE TANK TECHNOLOGIES AND REFUELING STATIONS
Table 163 : VALUE OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY SEGMENT/SECTOR, THROUGH 2020
Table 164 : CONCENTRATION OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 165 : TREND IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE SITES BY NUMBERS, THROUGH 2020
Table 166 : NUMBER OF LNG IMPORTING AND EXPORTING COUNTRIES, THROUGH 2020
Table 167 : NUMBER OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE SITES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 168 : NUMBER OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE SITES BY STORAGE TYPES, THROUGH 2020
Table 169 : TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS VEHICLES, THROUGH 2020
Table 170 : ACTIVITIES OF US LNG REGULATORY AGENCIES
Table 171 : KEY REGULATIONS AFFECTING NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE
Table 172 : KEY REGULATIONS AFFECTING NATURAL GAS STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES

List of Figures

Summary Figure : VALORIZATION OF GAS STORAGE BY SECTOR, 2012-2020

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