The HetNet Bible (Small Cells, Carrier WiFi, DAS & C-RAN): 2014 - 2020 - Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies, & Forecasts

 Published On: Sep, 2014 |    No of Pages: 551 |  Published By: Signals and Systems Telecom | Format: PDF
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Driven by in-building wireless coverage requirements and the growing influx of mobile broadband data traffic, a traditional macrocell based cellular network deployment is not deemed to be a sufficient solution to address the coverage and capacity needs of today’s wireless subscribers.

Wireless carriers are thus exploring options to offload additional coverage and capacity to alternatives such as strategically deployed small cells and WiFi access points, which have so far been deployed by more than 200 global wireless carriers. Adding further to the heterogeneity are alternative deployment models such as DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) and the emerging C-RAN (Cloud Radio Access Networks) architecture which concentrates the processing of the RAN segment of a mobile network in one or more, centralized data centers.

Driven by the thriving ecosystem, we expect small cells, carrier WiFi, DAS and C-RAN networks to account for over 50% of all mobile data traffic by the end of 2015, while overall spending on HetNet infrastructure is expected to reach $20 Billion annually during the same period.

This report presents an in-depth assessment of the global small cells, carrier WiFi, DAS and C-RAN markets. In addition to covering the technology, business case, the challenges, standardization initiatives, the industry’s roadmap, value chain analysis, deployment case studies, vendor service/product strategies and strategic recommendations, the report also presents comprehensive forecasts for the market from 2014 till 2020, including individual revenue and shipment projections of small cells, carrier WiFi, small cell backhaul, SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service), DAS, C-RAN, SON (Self-Organizing Network) and mobile data services across six geographical regions.

Also provided are historical figures for 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet covering quantitative data from all numeric figures presented in the report.

Topics Covered

The report covers the following topics:

• Small cell, carrier WiFi, DAS and C-RAN technology, and architecture
• Integration and offloading technology for HetNets
• Market drivers and key benefits of HetNets
• Challenges and Inhibitors to the HetNet ecosystem
• HetNet industry roadmap: 2010 – 2020
• HetNet industry value chain
• Vendor landscape and acquisitions
• HetNet deployment models
• Vertical markets for HetNet deployments
• Small cell backhaul and C-RAN fronthaul technology, requirements and key issues
• Standardization and regulatory initiatives
• SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service)
• Small cell, SCaaS, C-RAN, DAS and carrier WiFi deployment case studies
• Industry, wireless carrier and vendor commitments to HetNet deployments
• Enterprise RAN solutions
• Public safety and military centric LTE small cells
• WiFi enabled LTE gateways
• SON (Self-Organizing Network) technology
• Profiles and market positioning assessment (current strategy, target market and products/services) for the following players in the HetNet market: pure-play small cell vendors, DAS, RRH (Remote Radio Head) & repeater solution providers, carrier WiFi focused vendors, C-RAN solution providers, HetNet focused SON solution providers, wireless network (Macrocell, Core) infrastructure vendors, chipset, software, technology & component vendors, test & measurement solution providers, WiFi network providers and fronthaul/backhaul solution providers
• Conclusion and strategic recommendations for HetNet solution vendors, wireless carriers and macrocell infrastructure vendors
• Market analysis and forecasts for the industry’s revenue, including the following submarkets:
- Small Cells
- Carrier WiFi
- SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service)
- DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems)
- C-RAN (Cloud Radio Access Networks)
- SON (Self-Organizing Network) Solutions
- Enterprise RAN
- Small Cell Backhaul
- Mobile Fronthaul
- Mobile Network Data Service

• Small cell forecasts (unit shipments, revenue, installed base) are categorized in the following categories:

• RAN Technology
- GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA
- CDMA-2000/EV-DO
- LTE FDD
- TD-LTE
- WiMAX

• Deployment Model
- Home/Residential
- Enterprise
- Metro
- Rural

• Cell Size
- Femtocells
- Picocells
- Microcells

• Carrier WiFi forecasts (unit shipments, revenue, installed base) are categorized in the following categories:
• Equipment Category
- Access Points
- Access Point Controllers

• Integration Approach
- Managed WiFi Offload
- Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi

• Small cell backhaul forecasts (revenue) are categorized in the following technology categories:
- Ethernet over Copper
- Ethernet over Fiber
- DSL modems and DSLAMs
- NLOS (Non Line of Sight) Microwave (Sub-6GHz spectrum)
- PTP (Point to Point) Microwave (6-60GHz)
- PTMP (Point to Multipoint) Microwave (6-60GHz)
- Millimeter Wave (Unlicensed 60GHz spectrum)
- Millimeter Wave (Licensed 60GHz spectrum)
- Satellite

• Mobile network data service forecasts (throughput and revenue) are categorized in the following access network technology categories:
- Macrocell & C-RAN Networks
- Small Cells
- Carrier WiFi
- DAS

• Regional forecasts are categorized in the following 6 categories
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Western Europe
- Eastern Europe
- Middle East & Africa
- Latin & Central America

Key Questions Answered
 
The report provides answers to the following key questions:

• What are the key market drivers and challenges in the HetNet ecosystem?
• How big is the HetNet ecosystem, and how much revenue will it generate in 2020?
• What will be the installed base of small cells and carrier WiFi access points in 2020?
• Which geographical regions offer the greatest growth potential for HetNet deployments?
• What is the service revenue for mobile data services delivered over small cells, carrier WiFi, DAS, C-RAN and macrocells, and how will this vary overtime?
• How are investments on DAS technology impacting small cell and carrier WiFi deployments?
• What is the C-RAN concept, and how does it affect the small cell, DAS and carrier WiFi markets?
• Which technology will be predominant in the small cell backhaul ecosystem and is there a market for satellite based small cell backhaul?
• Is there a market for rural small cell deployments?
• How big are the opportunities for SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service) and enterprise RAN deployments?
• How is the HetNet value chain structured and how will it evolve overtime?
• What opportunities does the HetNet ecosystem offer to infrastructure vendors and other players involved in the value chain?
• What strategies should infrastructure vendors and wireless carriers adopt to capitalize on the HetNet opportunity?
• Can small cells help in accelerating LTE deployments for the military, public safety and other verticals?

Key Findings
 
The report has the following key findings:

• Small cells, carrier WiFi, DAS and C-RAN infrastructure investments will account for a $20 Billion HetNet ecosystem by 2020
• HetNet infrastructure is expected to carry more than 70% of all mobile network data traffic by 2020, which will account for $380 Billion in mobile data service revenue
• At present, the HetNet value chain is highly fragmented with pure-play specialists and incumbent macrocell vendors battling to gain a higher share of the market
• SNS Research expects the value chain to consolidate over the coming years following a string of acquisitions by industry giants such as Intel, Ericsson, Cisco and Nokia
• Eyeing the momentum behind small cell and C-RAN deployments, several DAS vendors, such as BTI Wireless and Kathrein-Werke KG, have developed small cell and C-RAN offerings
• Small cell vendors such as Airvana are also adopting C-RAN centric architectures
• Enterprise RAN investments based on combination of small cells and coordination platforms are expected to reach $5 Billion by the end of 2020
• While it is a preferred opinion among wireless carriers, aggregating outdoor small cell backhaul with macrocell infrastructure may prove to be a well challenging task. Consequently the demand for small cell backhauling has opened a new opportunity for investment, which will be a market worth nearly $6 Billion by 2020
• Spending on mobile fronthaul solutions will grow at a CAGR of nearly 40% between 2014 and 2020. By the end of 2020, mobile fronthaul investments will account for nearly $2.6 Billion in revenue

Companies Mentioned

3GPP
3Roam
4ipnet
4RF
6WIND
ABB
Ablaze
Ablaze Wireless
Accedian Networks
Accel Partners
Accelleran
Accuris Networks
AceAxis
Acer
Acme Packet
ACS (Applied Communication Sciences)
Actelis Networks
Actiontec
Actix
Actus Networks
Adara Venture Partners
Adax
ADB
ADI (Analog Devices Inc.)
ADLINK Technology
ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies)
ADTRAN
ADVA Optical Networking
Advanced RF Technologies
Advantech Wireless
Aepona
Aerohive
Affarii Technologies
Affirmed Networks
Agilent Technologies
AICENT
Airbus Defence & Space
Aircom International
AirHop Communications
Airspan Networks
Airvana
AirWalk
AJ Telecom Group
AKM (Asahi Kasei Microdevices)
ALAXALA Networks
Albis Technologies
Albtelecom
Alcatel-Lucent
ALCOMA
Alifabs Group
Allied Data Technologies
Allied Telesis
Alpha Networks
Altera
Altiostar Networks
Altobridge
Alvarion
AlwaysOn
Amadeus Capital Partners
Amdocs
American Tower Corporation
Andrew Corporation
Anite
Anixter
Anritsu Corporation
Anvaya Networks
Anziva Technologies
Aoptix
Aperto Networks
Applied Communication Sciences
Aptilo Networks
Arcadyan Technology Corporation
Argela
Aria
ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses) –  Japan
Aricent
Arieso
ARItel
Arqiva
Arris
Artemis Networks
Aruba Networks
Askey Computer Corporation
ASOCS
Astellia
ASUS
AT&T
AT&T Mobility
Athena Wireless Communications
Atomico
Augere Bangladesh
August Capital
Avanti Communications
Avaya
AveA
Aviat Networks
AVM
AWTG (Advanced Wireless Technology Group)
Axell Wireless
Axis Teknologies
Axxcelera
Azcom Technology
Babilon-T
BandwidthX
Batelco
Beeline
BelAir Networks
Belgacom
Bell Mobility
Best Western
Bewan Systems
Bharti Airtel
BICS (Belgacom International Carrier Services)
Bird Technologies
Birdstep Technology ASA
BL Companies
Black & Veatch
Black Box Corporation
BlackBerry
BLiNQ Networks
Blu Wireless Technology
BluWan
Boingo Wireless
Boonton Electronics
Bouygues Telecom
BridgeWave Communications
Broadband Forum
Broadcom
BroadHop
BroadSoft
Brocade
Browan Communications
BSG Wireless
BSkyB
BSNL
BT
BTI Systems
BTI Wireless
BURCO
Byers Engineering Company
Cable & Wireless Communications
CableFree Solutions
CableLabs
Cablevision
Cadence Design Systems
Calix
Cambium Networks
Canoga Perkins
Carlson Wireless Technologies
Carolina West Wireless
Casa Systems
Cavium
CBNL (Cambridge Broadband Networks Ltd.)
CCI (Communication Components Inc.)
CCI (Competitive Companies, Inc.)/WyTec International
CCI (Crown Castle International)
CCI Systems
CCS (Cambridge Communication Systems)
CCSA (China Communications Standards Association) –  China
CDG (CDMA Development Group)
CeedTec
Celcite
Cell C South Africa
Cellcom
Cellcom Israel
CellO
Cellular Asset Management
Cellular One of East Central Illinois
Cellvine
Cellwize
Celtro
Ceragon
Charles River Ventures
China Mobile
China Netcom
China Telecom (China Telecommunications Corporation)
China Unicom
China Unicom (China United Network Communications Group Company Limited)
Chunghwa Telecom
Cielo Networks
Ciena Corporation
Cincintaci Bell
Cisco
Claro
ClearSky
Clearwire
Cloudberry Mobile
CM Capital
CMRI (China Mobile Research Institute)
CNS
Cobham
Cobham Antenna Systems
Coherent Logix
Colt Telecom
Comba Telecom
Comba Telecom Systems Holdings
Comcast
CommScope
Comtech Korea
Comtrend
Conexant
Connectivity Wireless
Contela
Continuous Computing
Coral Group
Corecess
Corning
Corning MobileAccess
Cosmote
Cox Communications
Craig Wireless
Crown Castle
CS Corporation
CSI (Cellular Specialities, Inc.)
CTIA
Cuddy & Feder, LLP
Dali Wireless
Dapu Telecom
DAS Advisers
DASAN Networks
Datang Group
Datang Mobile
Datang Telecom
Davis Wright Tremaine, LLP
Delta Partners
DeltaNode
DesignArt Networks
Deutsche Telekom
Devicescape Software
Direct Beam
Dish Network
D-Link Corporation
DoCoMo interTouch
Dongwon T&I
DragonWave
Draka — Prysmian Group
Druid Software
Du
E-Band Communications
E-Blink
EchoStar
ECI Telecom
Eden Rock Communications
Edgewater Wireless Systems
EDX Wireless
EE (Everything Everywhere)
EION Wireless
Eircom
Elva-1 (Elva-Link)
Enterprise Partners
ERCOM
Ericsson
Ericsson-LG
Errigal
Ethertronics
Etisalat
ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute)
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
Exalt Communications
EXFO
ExteNet Systems
Extreme Networks
Eye-Fi
Fareastone
FastBack Networks
Femtel (Suzhou Femtel Communications)
Fiberhome Technologies
FibroLan
Firetide
Flash Wireless
FON Wireless
Fortinet
Foundation Capital
Foxcom
Free Mobile (France)
Freescale Semiconductor
Frog Capital
Front Porch
Fujitsu
Fujitsu Siemens
Fullerton Engineering Consultants Inc.
Galtronics
GCI (General Communication Inc. )
Gemtek Technology
Genband
Genmix Technology
Gilat Satellite Networks
Global Telecom Holding (formerly Orascom)
Global Tower Partners
GoNet Systems
Goodman Networks
Google
Gore (W. L. Gore & Associates)
GoS Networks
Granite Ventures
Green Mountain Communications Inc.
Green Packet
GrenTech (China GrenTech Corporation)
GSMA (GSM Association)
GWT (Global Wireless Technologies)
Handlink Technologies
Haymaker Technologies
HetNets Tower Corporation
HFR
Hilton
Hitachi
Hitachi Cable Networks
Hitachi CTA (Hitachi Communication Technologies America)
Honeywell
HP
HSL (Hay Systems Limited)
HTC
Huahuan
Huawei
Huber and Suhner (H+S)
Hughes Network Systems
Hutchison Global Communications
HXI
Hypower
iBWave
iDirect
IDS Technology Solutions
Iliad
Imec
Immix Wireless
Index Ventures
Indosat
InfoVista
Ingenia Telecom
InnerWireless
INOC
InPhase Wireless
InSite Wireless
Intel Capital
Intel Corporation
Intercontinental Hotel Group
InterDigital
Intracom Telecom
Intucell Systems
ip.access
iPass
IPITEK
iPosi
ISCO International
Iskratel
Isotrope
Iusacell
Ixia
Jafco Ventures
JDSU
Jersey Telecom
JMA Wireless
Juni Global
Juniper Networks
Kathrein-Werke KG
KDDI
KEYMILE
Keysight Technologies
KGP Logistics
Kineto Wireless
Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers
KMW Communications
Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co
KPN
KT (Korea Telecom)
Kumu Networks
L-3 Communications
Lantiq
Lattice Semiconductor
Lemko
LG Electronics
LG Uplus
LightPointe Communications
Lime Microsystems
lliad group
Loea Corporation
Lord & Company Technologies
LSI
Madison Dearborn Partners
Marriott International
Matrix Partners
Mavenir
Maverick Corporation
MAX4G
Maxim Integrated
Maxis (Malaysia)
McWane
MegaFon
Mentum
MER Group
MER-CellO Wireless Solutions
Meru Networks
Mesaplexx
metroPCS
Microlab (Wireless Telecom Group)
Microsemi Corporation
Microsoft
Microwave Networks
MIKOM
mimoOn
MIMOtech
Mindspeed Technologies
Minieum Networks
Mitsubishi
MobileAccess
Mobily
Moldtelecom
Mosaic Telecom
Motorola Mobility
Motorola Solutions
Movilnet Venezuela
Movistar
MRV Communications
MTC
MTI Mobile
MTS (Mobile TeleSystems OJSC)
NASCAR
Nash Technologies
NEC
Netgear
Netgem
Netia Poland
Network Norway
New Postcom Equipment
NewPath Networks
Nexcomm Systems
Nexius
NextG Networks
NextGenTel
Nextivity
NextWave Wireless
NexxComm Wireless
Node-H
Noisecom
Nokia
Nokia Networks
Nomadix
Nomor Research
Nortel
Nsight
NTT Broadband Platform
NTT Communications
NTT DoCoMo
NTT-ME
Nutaq/ NuRAN Wireless
O2 (Telefonica UK)
Oceus Networks
Octasic
Oi Brasil
OMA (Open Mobile Alliance)
Omantel
Omnitron Systems
OneAccess Networks
Opticon
Optimus Portugal
Option N.V.
Optiway
Optulink
Optus
Opus Capital
Oracle Corporation
Orange (France Telecom)
Orange Israel
Orange Romania
Overture Networks
P.I. Works
Pace
PCCW
PCIA (Wireless Infrastructure Association)
Pennington Law Firm
Percello
Philips
Phillips Lytle, LLP
picoChip
Pletronics
PLTD Philippines (Smart Communications Inc.)
PMC-Sierra
Polaris Networks
Polewall
Positron
Proxim Wireless
Psion
PT (Portugal Telecom)
PT Telkom
PTS
Public Mobile
Public Wireless
PureWave Networks
Quadriga Worldwide
Qualcomm
Qualcomm Atheros
Qualcomm Technologies
Quanta Computer
Qucell
Quortus
RACOM
RAD Data Communications
RADCOM
Radisys
RADWIN
Rakon
Rearden
Red.es
Redline Communications
Reliance Telecom
Renaissance Electronics & Communications
Republic Wireless
Retis
Reverb Networks
RF Connect
RF Window
RFNet Technologies
RFS (Radio Frequency Systems)
Rogers Wireless
Rosenberger
Rothschild
Ro-Timak Technology
R-TRON
Ruckus Wireless
SAF Tehnika
Sagemcom
Saguna Networks
SAI Technology
Samsung
Samsung Electronics
Samsung Ventures Europe
SBA Communications
Schema
Scottish Equity Partners
Senao Networks
Sequoia Capital
Sercom
SerComm
SFR
Sharp
Shasta Ventures
Shaw Communications
SHL Group (Scandinavian Health Ltd.)
Shyam Telecom
SIAE Microelectronics (SIAE Microelectronica)
Siemens
Siklu
SingTel
Sistel Networks
SK Group
SK Telecom
SK Telesys
SkyFiber
Skype
Small Cell Forum
SMC Networks
Smith Micro Software
SoftBank
SoftBank Mobile
Solectek
SOLiD (SOLiD Technologies)
Southern Cross Venture Partners
SpiderCloud Wireless
Sprint
Star Microwave
Star Solutions
StarHub
Starwood
STC
Stoke
Sub10 Systems
Sumitomo Electric Industries
Sunwave Communications
Swisscom
Sym Technology
Symena
Symmetricom
Syniverse Technologies
Sysnet Integrators
Taiwan Mobile
Talley
Tango Networks
Taqua
Tarana Wireless
Tata Elxsi
Tata Teleservices
TDC
TE Connectivity
Technicolor
Tecom
Tekelec
TEKTELIC Communications
Telco Systems
Tele2 Sweden
Telefónica
Telefónica Moviles
Telenor
Telenor Group
Telenor Sweden
TeliaSonera
Tellabs
Tellion
Tellumat
Telrad Networks
Telsey
Telstra
Telum
Telus Mobility
Tempest Telecom
TEOCO
TESSCO Technologies
Texas Christian University
Texas Instruments
The Canadian Pension Plan Investment Board
The Cloud
The Family Office
Three UK
TI (Texas Instruments)
TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) – USA
Tilgin
TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile)
TIM Brasil
Time Warner Cable
TMC
T-Mobile Austria
T-Mobile UK
T-Mobile USA
TOT Thailand
Towerstream Corporation
TP-LINK
TRaC Global
Trango Systems
Transit Wireless
Transmode
Tranzeo Wireless Technologies
Trendium
Tropos Networks (ABB)
TTA (Telecommunications Association) –  Korea
TTC (Technology Committee) – Japan
Tulinx
Turkcell
TVM Capital GmbH
U.S. Cellular
Ubee Interactive
Ubee-AirWalk
Ubidyne GmBH
Ubiquiti Networks
Ubiquoss
u-blox
UK Broadband
Union Wireless
University of Western Ontario
Uniwill
UTStarcom
Vectron International
Verizon Wireless
Vimpelcom Russia
Virgin Media
Vitesse Semiconductor
Vodafone
Vodafone Australia
Vodafone Canada
Vodafone Czech Republic
Vodafone Germany
Vodafone Greece
Vodafone Hungary
Vodafone Ireland
Vodafone Italy
Vodafone Netherlands
Vodafone New Zealand
Vodafone Portugal
Vodafone Qatar
Vodafone Romania
Vodafone Spain
Vodafone UK
VPIsystems
Vubiq Networks
Wataniya Telecom
Wave1
Wavesight
Wavion
WebRadar
WeFi
Wes-Tec
Westell Technologies
Westell Technologies
Wi-Ex
WiF Alliance
Wilson Electronics
WiMAX Forum
Wintegra
Wireless Broadband Alliance
Wireless Wisconsin
WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation)
WyLink
WyTec International
Xavi Technologies
Xceed Technologies
Xilinx
Yamaha
Yota Russia
Zain Bahrain
Zain Kuwait
Zain Saudi Arabia
Z-com (ZDC Wireless)
Zebra Technologies
Zhone Technologies
Zinwave
ZON Portugal
ZTE
ZyXEL

Countries Covered

Algeria
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Bolivia
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Brazil
Bulgaria
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Ecuador
Egypt
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hong Kong
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Kenya
Luxembourg
Malaysia
Mexico
Morocco
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nigeria
Norway
Pakistan
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Serbia
Singapore
Slovakia
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Sudan
Sweden
Switzerland
Taiwan
Tanzania
Thailand
Tunisia
Turkey
UAE
UK
Ukraine
Uruguay
USA
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Vietnam

Table of Contents
 
1 Chapter 1: Introduction 37
1.1 Executive Summary 37
1.2 Topics Covered 39
1.3 Key Questions Answered 42
1.4 Key Findings 43
1.5 Methodology 44
1.6 Target Audience 45
1.7 Companies Mentioned 46

2 Chapter 2: An Overview of Small Cells, Carrier WiFi, DAS & C-RAN 54
2.1 An Evolving Heterogeneous Networking Ecosystem 54
2.1.1 The Growing Demand for Mobile Broadband 54
2.1.2 Is LTE the Answer to all Capacity Problems? 54
2.1.3 HetNets: An Evolution of Network Topology 56
2.2 Small Cells 57
2.2.1 What Are Small Cells? 57
2.2.2 Why Deploy Small Cells? 57
2.2.3 Small Cell Categories 59
2.2.3.1 Femtocells - Home (e)NodeBs 60
2.2.3.2 Picocells 60
2.2.3.3 Microcells 60
2.2.3.4 Metrocell: An Emerging Deployment Model 61
2.2.3.5 Will Metrocell Deployments Encompass Carrier Deployed Femtocells? 61
2.3 Carrier WiFi 62
2.3.1 Carrier WiFi Integration Approaches 63
2.3.2 Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ 63
2.3.3 Managed Offload 63
2.3.3.1 SIM-based Authentication and Mobile Data Offload 63
2.3.3.2 Fully Integrated WiFi Access 63
2.4 C-RAN (Cloud Radio Access Network) 64
2.4.1 What is C-RAN? 64
2.4.2 Architectural Benefits and Challenges 64
2.5 DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) 66
2.5.1 What is DAS? 66
2.5.2 Passive DAS 66
2.5.3 Hybrid DAS 67
2.5.4 Active DAS 67
2.6 Alternative Options for Offloading Mobile Network Coverage and Capacity 67
2.6.1 Macrocell Network and Spectrum Expansion 67
2.6.2 Caching & Mobile CDNs 68
2.7 The Business Case: What is Driving the HetNet Market? 69
2.7.1 Mobile Data Traffic: The Tsunami of 335 Exabytes 69
2.7.2 Endorsement from the Carrier Community 70
2.7.3 In-Building Coverage and Capacity 71
2.7.4 Enterprise Demand: BYOD is Fuelling Growth 71
2.7.5 Capacity Offload in Congested Localities 71
2.7.6 CapEx Savings 71
2.7.7 Non-Expandability of Macrocell Network 72
2.8 Challenges & Inhibitors to the HetNet Ecosystem 73
2.8.1 Security Concerns 73
2.8.2 Competing HetNet Solutions: DAS vs. Indoor Small Cells 73
2.8.3 Interference with Macrocell Infrastructure & Spectrum Constraints 74
2.8.4 Backhaul Requirements and Complexity 74
2.8.5 C-RAN Fronthaul Challenges 74
2.8.6 Commercial Immaturity 74
2.8.7 Economic Constraints 75
2.8.8 Device Side, Client and OS Issues 75
2.8.9 Deployment Challenges 75
2.8.10 Integrating Segregated WiFi Infrastructure into Mobile Networks 75
2.8.11 Impact of Macrocell LTE Rollouts: Negative or Positive? 76

3 Chapter 3: Integration & Offloading Technology 77
3.1 Integrating Small Cells into the Mobile Network 77
3.1.1 Integration into 3G Networks 77
3.1.1.1 Iuh based Integration: Residential/Enterprise Femtocells 77
3.1.1.2 Iub: Picocells, Microcells and Now Even Femtocells 79
3.1.2 S1: Integration into LTE Networks 80
3.1.2.1 eNB Small Cell Architecture 80
3.1.2.2 HeNB Small Cell Architecture 81
3.2 Integrating C-RAN into the Mobile Network 81
3.2.1 CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface) 81
3.2.2 OBSAI (Open Base Station Architecture Initiative) 81
3.2.3 ORI (Open Radio Interface) 82
3.3 WiFi: The Evolution from an Ethernet Extension to Wireless Carrier Integration 83
3.4 Enabling Technologies for WiFi and Cellular RAN Interoperability 83
3.4.1 ANDSF (Access Network Discovery and Selection Function) 83
3.4.1.1 Enabling Seamless Mobility 84
3.4.1.2 Commercial Availability of ANDSF Solutions 84
3.4.2 Hotspot 2.0 84
3.4.2.1 Discovery - 802.11u 84
3.4.2.2 Encryption - 802.11i (WPA2) 85
3.4.2.3 Authentication – 802.1x (EAP) 85
3.4.2.4 OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) DM (Device Management) 85
3.4.2.5 Passpoint WiFi Certification 86
3.4.3 NGH (NextGen Hotspot) Program 86
3.4.3.1 Working alongside Hotspot 2.0 87
3.4.3.2 Enabling Seamless Mobile Network Connectivity 87
3.4.4 I-WLAN (Interworking Wireless LAN) 87
3.4.5 WISPr (Wireless Internet Service Provider Roaming) 87
3.4.6 MSAP (Mobility Services Advertisement Protocol) 88
3.4.7 WiFi Direct 88
3.5 Small Cell and Mobile Core Offloading Technologies 89
3.5.1 LIPA (Local IP Access) 89
3.5.1.1 Is LIPA Specifically for Small Cells? 89
3.5.1.2 Use Case Example: Local Network Multimedia Access 89
3.5.2 SIPTO (Selected IP Traffic Offload) 90
3.5.2.1 Use Case Example: Core Network Offload 90
3.5.2.2 The Downside: Is SIPTO Suitable for All Traffic Profiles? 90
3.5.3 IFOM (IP Flow Mobility and Seamless Offload) 91
3.5.3.1 Enabling Seamless Integration between WiFi and 3GPP RANs 91
3.6 WiFi and Cellular RAN Integration: Commercial Implementations to Address the HetNet Challenge 92
3.6.1 WiFi Integration into Macrocell and Small Cell Base Station Nodes 92
3.6.2 Policy Driven Control for Small Cell & WiFi 92
3.6.2.1 Vendor Demonstrations: Dynamic Switching between WiFi and LTE 92
3.6.3 Commercial Case Study: NGH SIM-based WiFi Access 93

4 Chapter 4: Industry Roadmap and Value Chain 94
4.1 HetNet Industry Roadmap: 2010 - 2020 94
4.1.1 2010 – 2012: Initial Rollouts: In-building Voice Converge & Nomadic Data Access 94
4.1.2 2013 – 2015: The 4G Expansion Era – A Shift from In-building Voice to Data Optimization 95
4.1.3 2016 – 2020: The HetNet Era - Continued Proliferation of HetNets 95
4.2 HetNet Value Chain 97
4.3 Embedded Technology Ecosystem 97
4.3.1 Chipset Developers 97
4.3.2 Embedded Component/Software Providers 97
4.4 HetNet RAN Ecosystem 99
4.4.1 ‘Pure-Play’ and Specialist Small Cell OEMs 99
4.4.2 WiFi Access Point OEMs 99
4.4.3 Macrocell RAN OEMs 99
4.4.4 DAS & Repeater Solution Providers 99
4.4.5 C-RAN Solution Providers 100
4.4.6 Other Technology & Network Component Providers/Enablers 100
4.5 Mobile Backhaul Ecosystem 101
4.5.1 Backhaul & Fronthaul Solution Providers 101
4.6 Mobile Core Ecosystem 101
4.6.1 Core Network Solution Providers 101
4.7 Connectivity Ecosystem 102
4.7.1 2G, 3G & 4G Wireless Carriers 102
4.7.2 WiFi Connectivity Providers 102
4.7.3 SCaaS Providers 102
4.8 SON Ecosystem 103
4.8.1 SON Solution Providers 103
4.9 SDN & NFV Ecosystem 103
4.9.1 SDN & NFV Providers 103
4.10 Vendor Landscape: Consolidation & Acquisitions Lead the Way 104
4.10.1 Broadcom Acquires Percello – Q4’2010 104
4.10.2 Radisys Acquires Continuous Computing – Q4’2010 104
4.10.3 Alvarion Acquires Wavion – Q4’2011 104
4.10.4 Mindspeed Technologies Acquires picoChip – Q1’2012 105
4.10.5 Ericsson Acquires BelAir Networks – Q2’2012 105
4.10.6 Crown Castle Acquires NextG Networks – Q2’2012 105
4.10.7 Qualcomm Acquires DesignArt Networks – Q3’2012 105
4.10.8 Oracle Acquires Acme Packet – Q1’2013 106
4.10.9 Oracle Acquires Tekelec – Q1’2013 106
4.10.10 Cisco Acquires Ubiquisys – Q2’2013 106
4.10.11 Cobham Acquires Axell Wireless– Q2’2013 107
4.10.12 Bird Technologies Acquires DeltaNode – Q3’2013 107
4.10.13 Intel Acquires Mindspeed’s Wireless Assets – Q4’2013 107
4.10.14 Intel Acquires LSI’s Axxia Networking Business – Q3’2014 107

5 Chapter 5: HetNet Deployment Models 108
5.1 Small Cell, DAS & C-RAN Deployment Models 108
5.1.1 Consumer (Indoor) Deployment Models 108
5.1.1.1 Home/Residential 108
5.1.1.2 Enterprise 108
5.1.2 Carrier Deployment Models 109
5.1.2.1 Indoor 109
5.1.2.2 Metro 109
5.1.2.3 Rural 109
5.1.3 SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service) 111
5.2 Carrier WiFi Deployment Models 112
5.2.1 Mobile Offload 112
5.2.2 SIM Based 112
5.2.3 Enterprise 112
5.2.4 Hotspot 112
5.2.5 Wholesale 112
5.2.6 Municipal WiFi 113

6 Chapter 6: Vertical Markets for HetNets 114
6.1 Residential 114
6.2 Healthcare 114
6.3 Higher Education 114
6.4 Large Enterprises 115
6.5 SMBs 115
6.6 Retail 115
6.7 Construction 115
6.8 Public Sector 116
6.9 Public Safety and Defense 116

7 Chapter 7: Small Cell Backhaul 117
7.1 Small Cell Backhaul Technology 117
7.1.1 Ethernet over Copper 117
7.1.2 Ethernet over Fiber 117
7.1.3 DSL 117
7.1.4 NLOS (Non-Line of Site) Microwave 118
7.1.5 PTP (Point to Point) Microwave – 6-60 GHz 118
7.1.6 PTMP (Point to Multipoint) Microwave – 6-60 GHz 118
7.1.7 Millimeter Wave (E-band) – Licensed and Unlicensed 118
7.1.8 Satellite Based Backhaul 118
7.2 Requirements for Small Cell Backhaul 119
7.2.1 Form Factor & Environmental Hardening 119
7.2.2 Power Supply & Consumption 119
7.2.3 Installation & Provisioning 119
7.2.4 Integration of OAM and SON Capabilities 119
7.2.5 Deployment & Maintenance Cost 120
7.3 Key Issues 121
7.3.1 Backhaul Sharing: Can Small Cells and Macrocells Share Resources? 121
7.3.2 Coverage Challenges 121
7.3.3 Capacity/Peak Throughput Challenges 121
7.3.4 Will Millimeter Wave be the Preferred Outdoor Small Cell Backhaul Solution? 122
7.3.5 Is there a market for Satellite based Small Cell Backhaul 122
7.3.6 Assessing the Impact of the SCaaS Ecosystem 122

8 Chapter 8: Standardization & Regulatory Initiatives 123
8.1 Small Cell Forum 123
8.1.1 Mission 123
8.1.2 Scope of Work 123
8.1.3 Working Groups 124
8.1.3.1 Marketing and Promotions Group 125
8.1.3.2 Radio & Physical Layer Group 125
8.1.3.3 Network Group 125
8.1.3.4 Regulatory Group 126
8.1.3.5 Services Group 126
8.1.3.6 Interoperability Group 126
8.1.3.7 Special Interest Focus Groups: Backhaul, Deployment, LTE, Rural & 3GPP2 Standards 126
8.2 WBA (Wireless Broadband Alliance) 127
8.2.1 Mission 127
8.2.2 Scope of Work 127
8.2.3 Working Groups 128
8.2.3.1 Business Workgroup 128
8.2.3.2 Industry Engagement Workgroup 128
8.2.3.3 Roaming Workgroup 128
8.3 WiFi Alliance 129
8.3.1 Mission 129
8.3.2 Certification Programs 129
8.3.2.1 Core Certification 129
8.3.2.2 Miracast 130
8.3.2.3 TDLS (Tunneled Direct Link Setup ) 130
8.3.2.4 Passpoint 130
8.3.2.5 WiFi Direct 131
8.3.2.6 WiFi Protected Setup 131
8.3.2.7 WMM (WiFi Multimedia) 131
8.3.2.8 WMM-Power Save 131
8.3.2.9 Voice-Personal: Voice over WiFi 131
8.3.2.10 Voice-Enterprise: Voice over WiFi 132
8.3.2.11 CWG-RF 132
8.3.2.12 WMM-Admission Control 132
8.3.2.13 IBSS with WiFi Protected Setup 132
8.4 HetNet Forum 133
8.4.1 Mission 133
8.4.2 Scope of Work 133
8.4.3 Governance & Membership 133
8.5 3GPP 135
8.5.1 Mission 135
8.5.2 Small Cell Standardization Activities 135
8.6 3GPP2 137
8.6.1 Mission 137
8.6.2 Small Cell Standardization Activities 137
8.7 Broadband Forum 138
8.7.1 Mission 138
8.7.2 Small Cell Standardization Activities 138
8.8 WiMAX Forum 139
8.8.1 Mission 139
8.8.2 Small Cell Standardization Activities 139
8.9 Prominent Collaborations 141
8.9.1 WBA and WiFi Alliance 141
8.9.2 Small Cell Forum and GSMA 141
8.9.3 WBA, GSMA and Small Cell Forum 141
8.9.3.1 Integrating on a Network Level 142
8.9.3.2 Setting the Stage for Advanced Traffic Management 142

9 Chapter 9: HetNet Deployments 143
9.1 SCaaS (Small Cells as a Service) Case Studies 143
9.1.1 BT 143
9.1.2 Cellcom 143
9.1.3 Colt Telecom 144
9.1.4 Cloudberry Mobile 144
9.1.5 ClearSky 144
9.1.6 Virgin Media 144
9.1.7 Ericsson & Phillips 145
9.1.8 Alcatel-Lucent & Towerstream 145
9.2 Carrier WiFi 145
9.2.1 AT&T Mobility 146
9.2.2 Comcast 146
9.2.3 Cox Communications 146
9.2.4 MetroPCS 147
9.2.5 Sprint 147
9.2.6 T-Mobile USA 147
9.2.7 Verizon Wireless 147
9.2.8 Free Mobile 148
9.2.9 BT 148
9.2.10 MegaFon 148
9.2.11 Orange (France Telecom) 149
9.2.12 Portugal Telecom 149
9.2.13 Telefónica Moviles (Spain) 149
9.2.14 T-Mobile Austria 149
9.2.15 Zain Saudi Arabia 149
9.2.16 China Mobile 150
9.2.17 KDDI 150
9.2.18 LG Uplus 150
9.2.19 NTT Broadband Platform 150
9.2.20 TIM Brasil 150
9.2.21 Other Carriers 151
9.3 Small Cell, DAS & C-RAN Deployments 151
9.3.1 AT&T Mobility 151
9.3.2 Beeline 151
9.3.3 Bouygues Telecom 152
9.3.4 China Mobile 152
9.3.5 China Unicom 152
9.3.6 Cosmote 152
9.3.7 EE (Everything Everywhere) 152
9.3.8 Free Mobile 153
9.3.9 KDDI 153
9.3.10 MegaFon 153
9.3.11 Moldtelecom 153
9.3.12 Mosaic Telecom 153
9.3.13 MTC 154
9.3.14 Movistar 154
9.3.15 Network Norway 154
9.3.16 NTT DoCoMo 154
9.3.17 O2 (Telefonica UK) 154
9.3.18 Optimus Portugal 155
9.3.19 Optus 155
9.3.20 Orange (Formerly France Telecom) 155
9.3.21 Orange Romania 155
9.3.22 SFR 155
9.3.23 SingTel 155
9.3.24 SK Telecom 155
9.3.25 SoftBank 156
9.3.26 Sprint 156
9.3.27 StarHub 156
9.3.28 TOT Thailand 156
9.3.29 Three UK 156
9.3.30 Verizon Wireless 157
9.3.31 Vodafone Australia 157
9.3.32 Vodafone Czech Republic 157
9.3.33 Vodafone Germany 157
9.3.34 Vodafone Greece 157
9.3.35 Vodafone Hungary 157
9.3.36 Vodafone Ireland 158
9.3.37 Vodafone Italy 158
9.3.38 Vodafone Netherlands 158
9.3.39 Vodafone New Zealand 158
9.3.40 Vodafone Portugal 158
9.3.41 Vodafone Qatar 158
9.3.42 Vodafone Romania 158
9.3.43 Vodafone Spain 159
9.3.44 Vodafone UK 159
9.3.45 Zain Bahrain 159
9.3.46 Other Commitments 159
9.4 Case Studies 160
9.4.1 Sprint/Softbank Acquisition: Assessing the Impact on the Small Cells Ecosystem 160
9.4.2 The Impact of LTE & Small Cells on Tier 2/3 CDMA Carriers 161
9.4.3 What is the TCO Impact of HetNet Deployments? 161

10 Chapter 10: Pure-Play Small Cell Vendors 162
10.1 Accelleran 162
10.2 ADB 162
10.3 Airspan Networks 163
10.4 Alpha Networks 164
10.5 Arcadyan Technology Corporation 164
10.6 Artemis Networks 165
10.7 Anvaya Networks 166
10.8 Argela 167
10.9 ARItel 167
10.10 Askey Computer Corporation 168
10.11 Contela 169
10.12 CS Corporation 170
10.13 Dongwon T&I 170
10.14 Femtel (Suzhou Femtel Communications) 171
10.15 Free 171
10.16 GWT (Global Wireless Technologies) 172
10.17 HSL (Hay Systems Limited) 173
10.18 ip.access 174
10.19 Juni Global 175
10.20 Lemko 176
10.21 Minieum Networks 176
10.22 Nutaq/ NuRAN Wireless 177
10.23 Oceus Networks 177
10.24 Pace 178
10.25 PureWave Networks 179
10.26 Quanta Computer 180
10.27 Sagemcom 180
10.28 SK Telesys 181
10.29 SpiderCloud Wireless 182
10.30 Star Solutions 183
10.31 Technicolor 184
10.32 Tecom 184
10.33 TEKTELIC Communications 185
10.34 Telum 185
10.35 Qucell 186
10.36 Ubee Interactive 186
10.37 WNC (Wistron NeWeb Corporation) 187
10.38 Z-com (ZDC Wireless) 188

11 Chapter 11: DAS, RRH & Repeater Solution Providers 189
11.1 AceAxis 189
11.2 ADRF (Advanced RF Technologies) 189
11.3 Affarii Technologies 190
11.4 American Tower Corporation 190
11.5 Arqiva 190
11.6 Axell Wireless/Cobham 191
11.7 Axis Teknologies 192
11.8 Black Box Corporation 193
11.9 BTI Wireless 193
11.10 CCI (Communication Components Inc.) 194
11.11 CCI (Crown Castle International) 194
11.12 CCI Systems 195
11.13 CSI (Cellular Specialities, Inc.)/Westell Technologies 196
11.14 Comba Telecom Systems Holdings 196
11.15 CommScope 197
11.16 Corning MobileAccess 198
11.17 Dali Wireless 199
11.18 DeltaNode (Bird Technologies) 200
11.19 Ethertronics 201
11.20 ExteNet Systems 201
11.21 Foxcom 202
11.22 Galtronics 202
11.23 Goodman Networks 202
11.24 IDS Technology Solutions 203
11.25 JMA Wireless 204
11.26 KMW Communications 204
11.27 Kathrein-Werke KG 205
11.28 MER-CellO Wireless Solutions 206
11.29 Microlab (Wireless Telecom Group) 206
11.30 Nexius 207
11.31 RF Window 207
11.32 RFS (Radio Frequency Systems) 208
11.33 Rosenberger 209
11.34 SOLiD (SOLiD Technologies) 209
11.35 Sumitomo Electric Industries 210
11.36 TE Connectivity 210
11.37 TESSCO Technologies 211
11.38 Wi-Ex 211
11.39 Wilson Electronics 212
11.40 Zinwave/McWane 212

12 Chapter 12: Carrier WiFi Focused Vendors 214
12.1 4ipnet 214
12.2 ADTRAN 215
12.3 Aerohive 215
12.4 Alvarion (Wavion) 216
12.5 Aruba Networks 216
12.6 Browan Communications 217
12.7 CCI (Competitive Companies, Inc.)/WyTec International 218
12.8 CeedTec 218
12.9 D-Link Corporation 219
12.10 Edgewater Wireless Systems 219
12.11 EION Wireless 220
12.12 Extreme Networks 221
12.13 Firetide 221
12.14 Fortinet 221
12.15 Gemtek Technology 222
12.16 GoNet Systems 222
12.17 GrenTech (China GrenTech Corporation) 223
12.18 Handlink Technologies 224
12.19 Meru Networks 224
12.20 Motorola Solutions (Zebra Technologies) 224
12.21 NETGEAR 225
12.22 Nomadix 225
12.23 Option N.V. 226
12.24 Proxim Wireless 227
12.25 RFNet Technologies 228
12.26 Ro-Timak Technology 228
12.27 Ruckus Wireless 228
12.28 Senao Networks 229
12.29 SerComm 229
12.30 Shyam Telecom 230
12.31 TP-LINK 231
12.32 Tranzeo Wireless Technologies 231
12.33 Tropos Networks (ABB) 231
12.34 Ubiquiti Networks 232
12.35 ZyXEL 232

13 Chapter 13: C-RAN Focused Solution Providers 234
13.1 6WIND 234
13.2 ADLINK Technology 235
13.3 Airvana 235
13.4 Altiostar Networks 236
13.5 ASOCS 237
13.6 Axxcelera 238
13.7 Intel Corporation 239
13.8 MTI Mobile 241

14 Chapter 14: HetNet Focused SON Solution Providers 242
14.1 AirHop Communications 242
14.2 Amdocs 244
14.3 Astellia 246
14.4 Cellwize 247
14.5 Celtro 248
14.6 Eden Rock Communications 249
14.7 InfoVista 250
14.8 JDSU 251
14.9 Optulink 252
14.10 P.I. Works 253
14.11 RADCOM 254
14.12 Reverb Networks 255
14.13 TEOCO 256
14.14 Tulinx 257
14.15 WebRadar 258
14.16 Xceed Technologies 259

15 Chapter 15: Macrocell RAN & Mobile Core Infrastructure Vendors 260
15.1 Alcatel-Lucent 260
15.2 Cisco 262
15.3 Datang Mobile 264
15.4 Ericsson 265
15.5 Ericsson-LG 267
15.6 Fujitsu 268
15.7 Huawei 269
15.8 Hitachi 271
15.9 HP 273
15.10 Juniper Networks 274
15.11 Mitsubishi 275
15.12 NEC 276
15.13 New Postcom Equipment 278
15.14 Nokia Networks 279
15.15 NTT DoCoMo 281
15.16 Samsung 282
15.17 ZTE 283

16 Chapter 16: Chipset, Component, Software and Technology Vendors 284
16.1 Ablaze Wireless 284
16.2 Accuris Networks 285
16.3 ACS (Applied Communication Sciences) 285
16.4 Adax 286
16.5 ADI (Analog Devices Inc.) 287
16.6 Affirmed Networks 288
16.7 AKM (Asahi Kasei Microdevices) 288
16.8 Altera 289
16.9 Aptilo Networks 289
16.10 Aricent 290
16.11 AWTG (Advanced Wireless Technology Group) 291
16.12 Azcom Technology 292
16.13 BandwidthX 292
16.14 Birdstep Technology ASA 293
16.15 Blu Wireless Technology 293
16.16 Broadcom 294
16.17 BSG Wireless 295
16.18 Casa Systems 295
16.19 Cavium 296
16.20 Coherent Logix 297
16.21 Direct Beam 297
16.22 Freescale Semiconductor 298
16.23 Front Porch 299
16.24 GENBAND 300
16.25 Green Packet 300
16.26 iPosi 301
16.27 InterDigital 301
16.28 Kineto Wireless 303
16.29 Kumu Networks 304
16.30 Lattice Semiconductor 305
16.31 Lime Microsystems 306
16.32 Mavenir 307
16.33 Maxim Integrated 308
16.34 Microsemi Corporation 309
16.35 MIMOon 310
16.36 Nash Technologies 311
16.37 Netgem 312
16.38 Node-H 313
16.39 Nomor Research 314
16.40 Octasic 315
16.41 Oracle Corporation 316
16.42 Pletronics 316
16.43 PMC-Sierra 317
16.44 Polaris Networks 318
16.45 Public Wireless 319
16.46 Qualcomm 320
16.47 Quortus 322
16.48 Radisys 323
16.49 Rakon 324
16.50 Saguna Networks 325
16.51 SAI Technology 326
16.52 Stoke 327
16.53 Smith Micro Software 327
16.54 Syniverse Technologies 328
16.55 Tata Elxsi 329
16.56 TI (Texas Instruments) 330
16.57 U-blox 331
16.58 Vectron International 332
16.59 Vitesse Semiconductor 333
16.60 Xilinx 334

17 Chapter 17: Test & Measurement Solution Providers 335
17.1 Anite 335
17.2 Anritsu Corporation 336
17.3 EDX Wireless 337
17.4 ERCOM 338
17.5 EXFO 339
17.6 iBwave 340
17.7 Ixia 341
17.8 Keysight Technologies 342
17.9 VPIsystems 343
17.10 WeFi 344

18 Chapter 18: WiFi Network Providers 345
18.1 AlwaysOn 345
18.2 Boingo Wireless 345
18.3 BSkyB (The Cloud) 346
18.4 Devicescape Software 346
18.5 Fon Wireless 347
18.6 iPass 348
18.7 Quadriga Worldwide 349
18.8 Towerstream Corporation 350

19 Chapter 19: Backhaul & Fronthaul Solution Providers 351
19.1 3Roam 351
19.2 4RF 351
19.3 Accedian Networks 352
19.4 Actelis Networks 352
19.5 Actiontec 353
19.6 Actus Networks 353
19.7 ADVA Optical Networking 353
19.8 Advantech Wireless 354
19.9 ALAXALA Networks 355
19.10 Albis Technologies 355
19.11 ALCOMA 355
19.12 Allied Data Technologies 356
19.13 Allied Telesis 356
19.14 Arris 356
19.15 Athena Wireless Communications 357
19.16 Avanti Communications 358
19.17 Aviat Networks 359
19.18 AVM 360
19.19 Brocade 360
19.20 BLiNQ Networks 361
19.21 BluWan 362
19.22 BridgeWave Communications 363
19.23 BTI Systems 364
19.24 CableFree Solutions 365
19.25 Calix 365
19.26 Cambium Networks 366
19.27 Canoga Perkins 366
19.28 Carlson Wireless Technologies 367
19.29 CBNL (Cambridge Broadband Networks Ltd.) 367
19.30 CCS (Cambridge Communication Systems) 368
19.31 Ceragon 369
19.32 Cielo Networks 370
19.33 Ciena Corporation 370
19.34 Comtrend 371
19.35 Corecess 371
19.36 DASAN Networks 372
19.37 DragonWave 372
19.38 E-Band Communications 373
19.39 E-Blink 374
19.40 ECI Telecom 375
19.41 Elva-1 (Elva-Link) 375
19.42 Exalt Communications 376
19.43 FastBack Networks 376
19.44 Fiberhome Technologies 377
19.45 FibroLan 377
19.46 Genmix Technology 378
19.47 Gilat Satellite Networks 378
19.48 HFR 379
19.49 Huahuan 379
19.50 Hughes Network Systems 380
19.51 HXI 380
19.52 iDirect 381
19.53 Intracom Telecom 382
19.54 IPITEK 382
19.55 Iskratel 383
19.56 KEYMILE 383
19.57 LightPointe Communications 383
19.58 Loea Corporation 384
19.59 MAX4G 385
19.60 Microwave Networks 385
19.61 MIMOtech 386
19.62 MRV Communications 387
19.63 Nexcomm Systems 387
19.64 NexxComm Wireless 387
19.65 Omnitron Systems 388
19.66 OneAccess Networks 388
19.67 Overture Networks 388
19.68 Polewall 389
19.69 Positron 390
19.70 RACOM 390
19.71 RAD Data Communications 390
19.72 RADWIN 391
19.73 Redline Communications 392
19.74 SAF Tehnika 392
19.75 SIAE Microelectronics (SIAE Microelectronica) 392
19.76 Siklu 393
19.77 SkyFiber 394
19.78 SMC Networks 394
19.79 Solectek 394
19.80 Star Microwave 395
19.81 Sub10 Systems 395
19.82 Taqua 396
19.83 Tarana Wireless 397
19.84 Telco Systems 398
19.85 Tellabs 398
19.86 Tellion 399
19.87 Tellumat 400
19.88 Telrad Networks 400
19.89 Telsey 401
19.90 Tilgin 401
19.91 Trango Systems 402
19.92 Transmode 402
19.93 Ubiquoss 403
19.94 UTStarcom 403
19.95 Vubiq Networks 403
19.96 Wave1 404
19.97 Wavesight 405
19.98 Xavi Technologies 405
19.99 Yamaha 405
19.100 Zhone Technologies 406

20 Chapter 20: Market Analysis and Forecasts 407
20.1 The Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Market: 2014 – 2020 407
20.1.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base 407
20.1.1.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base Compared 408
20.1.1.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region 408
20.1.2 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue 409
20.1.2.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue Compared 410
20.1.2.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region 411
20.1.3 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue 412
20.1.3.1 Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue Compared 412
20.1.3.2 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue by Region 413
20.2 The Global Small Cell Market: 2014 – 2020 414
20.2.1 Global Throughput of Small Cell Data Traffic 414
20.2.2 Global Small Cell Installed Base 414
20.2.3 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro) 415
20.2.3.1 Global Femtocell Installed Base 415
20.2.3.2 Global Picocell Installed Base 416
20.2.3.3 Global Microcell Installed Base 416
20.2.4 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Deployment Model (Home/Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural) 417
20.2.4.1 Home/Residential Small Cell Installed Base 418
20.2.4.2 Enterprise Small Cell Installed Base 418
20.2.4.3 Metro Small Cell Installed Base 419
20.2.4.4 Rural Small Cell Installed Base 419
20.2.5 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G) 420
20.2.5.1 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Installed Base 421
20.2.5.2 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Installed Base 421
20.2.6 Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TD-LTE, WiMAX) 422
20.2.6.1 GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Installed Base 422
20.2.6.2 CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Installed Base 423
20.2.6.3 LTE FDD Small Cell Installed Base 423
20.2.6.4 TD-LTE Small Cell Installed Base 424
20.2.6.5 WiMAX Small Cell Installed Base 424
20.2.7 Small Cell Installed Base by Region 425
20.2.8 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 425
20.2.9 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro) 427
20.2.9.1 Global Femtocell Unit Shipments & Revenue 428
20.2.9.2 Global Picocell Unit Shipments & Revenue 429
20.2.9.3 Global Microcell Unit Shipments & Revenue 430
20.2.10 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Deployment Model (Home/Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural) 431
20.2.10.1 Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 432
20.2.10.2 Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 433
20.2.10.3 Metro Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 434
20.2.10.4 Rural Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 435
20.2.11 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G) 436
20.2.11.1 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 437
20.2.11.2 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 438
20.2.12 Global Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TD-LTE, WiMAX) 439
20.2.12.1 GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 440
20.2.12.2 CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 441
20.2.12.3 LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 442
20.2.12.4 TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 443
20.2.12.5 WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue 444
20.2.13 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region 445
20.2.14 Global Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue 446
20.2.15 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region 446
20.3 The Global Carrier WiFi Market: 2014 – 2020 447
20.3.1 Global Throughput of Carrier WiFi Data Traffic 447
20.3.2 Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base 447
20.3.3 Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers) 448
20.3.3.1 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base 448
20.3.3.2 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Installed Base 449
20.3.4 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi) 449
20.3.4.1 Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Installed Base 450
20.3.4.2 Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Installed Base 450
20.3.5 Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region 451
20.3.6 Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue 452
20.3.7 Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers) 453
20.3.7.1 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue 454
20.3.7.2 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments & Revenue 455
20.3.8 Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged 'Open Access' WiFi) 456
20.3.8.1 Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue 457
20.3.8.2 Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments & Revenue 458
20.3.9 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue by Region 459
20.3.10 Global Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue 460
20.3.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region 460
20.4 The Global SCaaS Market: 2014 – 2020 461
20.4.1 Global SCaaS Revenue 461
20.4.2 SCaaS Revenue by Region 461
20.5 The Global Small Cell Backhaul Market: 2014 – 2020 462
20.5.1 Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 462
20.5.2 Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Technology 463
20.5.2.1 Ethernet over Copper Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 464
20.5.2.2 Ethernet over Fiber Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 464
20.5.2.3 DSL Modems and DSLAMs Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 465
20.5.2.4 NLOS Microwave (Below 6 GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 465
20.5.2.5 PTP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 466
20.5.2.6 PTMP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 466
20.5.2.7 Millimeter Wave (Unlicensed 60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 467
20.5.2.8 Millimeter Wave (Licensed 71-76GHz, 81-86GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 467
20.5.2.9 Satellite Based Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending 468
20.5.3 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Region 468
20.6 The Global DAS Market: 2014 – 2020 469
20.6.1 Global Throughput of DAS Data Traffic 469
20.6.2 Global DAS Infrastructure Spending 469
20.6.3 DAS Infrastructure Spending by Region 470
20.7 The Global C-RAN Market: 2014 – 2020 471
20.7.1 Global C-RAN Infrastructure Spending 471
20.7.2 C-RAN Infrastructure Spending by Region 471
20.8 The Global SON Market: 2014 – 2020 472
20.8.1 Global SON Solution Spending 472
20.8.2 SON Solution Spending by Region 472
20.9 The Global Mobile Network Data Service Market: 2014 – 2020 473
20.9.1 Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 473
20.9.2 Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Access Network Type (Macrocell, C-RAN, Small Cell, Carrier WiFi, DAS) 473
20.9.2.1 Macrocell & C-RAN based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 474
20.9.2.2 Small Cell based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 474
20.9.2.3 Carrier WiFi based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 475
20.9.2.4 DAS based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue 475
20.9.3 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Region 476
20.10 North America Market: 2014 – 2020 477
20.10.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in North America 477
20.10.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in North America 477
20.10.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America 478
20.10.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America 478
20.10.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in North America 479
20.10.6 Small Cell Installed Base in North America 480
20.10.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America 480
20.10.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America 481
20.10.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America 482
20.10.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in North America 482
20.10.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America 483
20.10.12 SCaaS Revenue in North America 484
20.10.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in North America 484
20.10.14 DAS Infrastructure Spending in North America 485
20.10.15 C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in North America 485
20.10.16 SON Solution Spending in North America 486
20.11 Asia Pacific Market: 2014 – 2020 487
20.11.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Asia Pacific 487
20.11.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific 487
20.11.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific 488
20.11.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 488
20.11.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific 489
20.11.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Asia Pacific 490
20.11.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 490
20.11.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific 491
20.11.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific 492
20.11.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Asia Pacific 492
20.11.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific 493
20.11.12 SCaaS Revenue in Asia Pacific 494
20.11.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific 494
20.11.14 DAS Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific 495
20.11.15 C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific 495
20.11.16 SON Solution Spending in Asia Pacific 496
20.12 Western Europe Market: 2014 – 2020 497
20.12.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Western Europe 497
20.12.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Western Europe 497
20.12.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe 498
20.12.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 498
20.12.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Western Europe 499
20.12.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Western Europe 500
20.12.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 500
20.12.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe 501
20.12.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe 502
20.12.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Western Europe 502
20.12.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe 503
20.12.12 SCaaS Revenue in Western Europe 504
20.12.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe 504
20.12.14 DAS Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe 505
20.12.15 C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe 505
20.12.16 SON Solution Spending in Western Europe 506
20.13 Eastern Europe Market: 2014 – 2020 507
20.13.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Eastern Europe 507
20.13.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe 507
20.13.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe 508
20.13.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 508
20.13.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe 509
20.13.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Eastern Europe 510
20.13.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 510
20.13.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe 511
20.13.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe 512
20.13.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Eastern Europe 512
20.13.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe 513
20.13.12 SCaaS Revenue in Eastern Europe 514
20.13.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe 514
20.13.14 DAS Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe 515
20.13.15 C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe 515
20.13.16 SON Solution Spending in Eastern Europe 516
20.14 Middle East & Africa Market: 2014 – 2020 517
20.14.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Middle East & Africa 517
20.14.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa 517
20.14.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa 518
20.14.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 518
20.14.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa 519
20.14.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Middle East & Africa 520
20.14.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 520
20.14.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa 521
20.14.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa 522
20.14.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Middle East & Africa 522
20.14.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa 523
20.14.12 SCaaS Revenue in Middle East & Africa 524
20.14.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa 524
20.14.14 DAS Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa 525
20.14.15 C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa 525
20.14.16 SON Solution Spending in Middle East & Africa 526
20.15 Latin & Central America Market: 2014 – 2020 527
20.15.1 Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Latin & Central America 527
20.15.2 Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America 527
20.15.3 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America 528
20.15.4 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 528
20.15.5 Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America 529
20.15.6 Small Cell Installed Base in Latin & Central America 530
20.15.7 Small Cell Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 530
20.15.8 Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America 531
20.15.9 Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America 532
20.15.10 Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments & Revenue in Latin & Central America 532
20.15.11 Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America 533
20.15.12 SCaaS Revenue in Latin & Central America 534
20.15.13 Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America 534
20.15.14 DAS Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America 535
20.15.15 C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America 535
20.15.16 SON Solution Spending in Latin & Central America 536

21 Chapter 21: Conclusion and Strategic Recommendations 537
21.1 The Formula for Success: Selecting the Right Combination of Small Cell Form Factors 537
21.2 SON Integration is Key 537
21.3 Mobile Fronthaul: Opportunities Beyond C-RAN 539
21.4 Accelerating the Transition to Military, Tactical & Public Safety LTE Networks 541
21.5 WiFi Integration: The Emerging Market for WiFi Enabled LTE Gateways 544
21.6 Prospects of Enterprise RAN Deployments 546
21.7 Network Visibility & OAM 547
21.8 Addressing Network Security: IPsec 547
21.9 Small Cells, WiFi C-RAN or DAS: Which Implementation will lead HetNet Deployments? 548
21.10 Rise of the Non-Macro Vendors 548
21.11 The Opportunity for Small Cells in Emerging Rural Markets 549
21.12 Strategic Recommendations 550
21.12.1 Recommendations for HetNet Solution Vendors 550
21.12.2 Recommendations for Wireless Carriers 550
21.12.3 Recommendations for Macrocell Infrastructure Vendors 551
21.12.4 Recommendations for Backhaul & Fronthaul Solution Providers 551

List of Figures
 
Figure 1: Global LTE Subscriptions by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Millions) 55
Figure 2: HetNet Architecture 56
Figure 3: Small Cell Coverage Range Comparison 58
Figure 4: Small Cell Characteristics & Comparison to Macrocells 59
Figure 5: Mobile Network Data Offloading via WiFi 62
Figure 6: C-RAN Architecture 65
Figure 7: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic by Region: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 69
Figure 8: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic by Access Network Type (Macrocell, C-RAN, Small Cells, Carrier WiFi, DAS): 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 70
Figure 9: Global DAS Spending: 2010 – 2020 ($ Billion) 73
Figure 10: Iuh based Small Cell Integration in a 3G Mobile Network 78
Figure 11: Iub based Small Cell Integration in a 3G Mobile Network 79
Figure 12: S1 Interface based Small Cell Integration in an LTE Network 80
Figure 13: HetNet Industry Roadmap: 2010 - 2020 94
Figure 14: Annual Global Throughput of Small Cells and Carrier WiFi Data Networks: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 96
Figure 15: The HetNet Value Chain 98
Figure 16: SCaaS Provider and Wireless Carrier Responsibilities in a SCaaS Offering 111
Figure 17: Small Cell Forum’s Scope 124
Figure 18: Small Cell Forum Working Groups 125
Figure 19: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Millions of Units) 407
Figure 20: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base Compared: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 408
Figure 21: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 408
Figure 22: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Millions of Units) 409
Figure 23: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 409
Figure 24: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments Compared: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 410
Figure 25: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue Compared: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 410
Figure 26: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 411
Figure 27: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 411
Figure 28: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 412
Figure 29: Global Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 412
Figure 30: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 413
Figure 31: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over Small Cells: 2010 - 2020 (Exabytes) 414
Figure 32: Global Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 414
Figure 33: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 415
Figure 34: Global Femtocell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 415
Figure 35: Global Picocell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 416
Figure 36: Global Microcell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 416
Figure 37: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Deployment Model (Home/Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 417
Figure 38: Home/Residential Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 418
Figure 39: Enterprise Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 418
Figure 40: Metro Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 419
Figure 41: Rural Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 419
Figure 42: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 420
Figure 43: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM-WCDMA) Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 421
Figure 44: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 421
Figure 45: Global Small Cell Installed Base by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD/TD-LTE, WiMAX): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 422
Figure 46: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 422
Figure 47: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 423
Figure 48: LTE FDD Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 423
Figure 49: TD-LTE Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 424
Figure 50: WiMAX Small Cell Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 424
Figure 51: Small Cell Installed Base by Region: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 425
Figure 52: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Millions of Units) 425
Figure 53: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 426
Figure 54: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 - 2020 (Millions of Units) 427
Figure 55: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Cell Size (Femto, Pico, Micro): 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 427
Figure 56: Global Femtocell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Millions of Units) 428
Figure 57: Global Femtocell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 428
Figure 58: Global Picocell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Millions of Units) 429
Figure 59: Global Picocell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 429
Figure 60: Global Microcell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Millions of Units) 430
Figure 61: Global Microcell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 430
Figure 62: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Deployment Model (Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 431
Figure 63: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Deployment Model (Residential, Enterprise, Metro, Rural): 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 431
Figure 64: Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 432
Figure 65: Home/Residential Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 432
Figure 66: Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 433
Figure 67: Enterprise Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 433
Figure 68: Metro Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 434
Figure 69: Metro Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 434
Figure 70: Rural Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 435
Figure 71: Rural Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 435
Figure 72: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 436
Figure 73: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology Generation (2G, 3G, 4G): 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 436
Figure 74: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 437
Figure 75: 2G/3G (CDMA2000/GSM/W-CDMA) Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 437
Figure 76: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 438
Figure 77: 4G (LTE/WiMAX) Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 438
Figure 78: Global Small Cell Unit Shipments by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD, TD-LTE, WiMAX): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 439
Figure 79: Global Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Air Interface Technology (GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000/EV-DO, LTE FDD, TD-LTE, WiMAX): 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 439
Figure 80: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 440
Figure 81: GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 440
Figure 82: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 441
Figure 83: CDMA2000/EV-DO Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 441
Figure 84: LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 442
Figure 85: LTE FDD Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 442
Figure 86: TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 443
Figure 87: TD-LTE Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 443
Figure 88: WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 444
Figure 89: WiMAX Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 444
Figure 90: Small Cell Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 445
Figure 91: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 445
Figure 92: Global Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 446
Figure 93: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 446
Figure 94: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over Carrier WiFi: 2010 - 2020 (Exabytes) 447
Figure 95: Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 447
Figure 96: Global Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 448
Figure 97: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 448
Figure 98: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 449
Figure 99: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Installed Base by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 449
Figure 100: Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 450
Figure 101: Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Installed Base: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 450
Figure 102: Carrier WiFi Installed Base by Region: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 451
Figure 103: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 452
Figure 104: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 452
Figure 105: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 453
Figure 106: Global Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Equipment Type (Access Points, Access Point Controllers): 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 453
Figure 107: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 454
Figure 108: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 454
Figure 109: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 455
Figure 110: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Controller Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 455
Figure 111: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged 'Open Access' WiFi): 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 456
Figure 112: Global Carrier WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue by Integration Approach (Managed WiFi Offload, Unmanaged 'Open Access' WiFi): 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 456
Figure 113: Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 457
Figure 114: Global Managed WiFi Offload Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 457
Figure 115: Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipments: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 458
Figure 116: Global Unmanaged ‘Open Access’ WiFi Access Point Unit Shipment Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 458
Figure 117: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments by Region: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 459
Figure 118: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 459
Figure 119: Global Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 460
Figure 120: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 460
Figure 121: Global SCaaS Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 461
Figure 122: SCaaS Revenue by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 461
Figure 123: Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 462
Figure 124: Global Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Technology: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 463
Figure 125: Ethernet over Copper Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 464
Figure 126: Ethernet over Fiber Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 464
Figure 127: DSL Modems and DSLAMs Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 465
Figure 128: NLOS Microwave (Below 6 GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 465
Figure 129: PTP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 466
Figure 130: PTMP Microwave (6-60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 466
Figure 131: Millimeter Wave (Unlicensed 60GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 467
Figure 132: Millimeter Wave (Licensed 71-76GHz, 81-86GHz) Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 467
Figure 133: Satellite Based Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 468
Figure 134: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 468
Figure 135: Annual Global Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic over DAS: 2010 - 2020 (Exabytes) 469
Figure 136: Global DAS Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 469
Figure 137: DAS Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 470
Figure 138: Global C-RAN Infrastructure Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 471
Figure 139: C-RAN Infrastructure Spending by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 471
Figure 140: Global SON Solution Spending: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 472
Figure 141: SON Solution Spending by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 472
Figure 142: Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 473
Figure 143: Global Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Access Network Type (Macrocell, Small Cell, Carrier WiFi, DAS): 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 473
Figure 144: Macrocell & C-RAN based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 474
Figure 145: Small Cell based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 474
Figure 146: Carrier WiFi based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 475
Figure 147: DAS based Mobile Network Data Service Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 475
Figure 148: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue by Region: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 476
Figure 149: Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in North America: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 477
Figure 150: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 477
Figure 151: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 478
Figure 152: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in North America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 478
Figure 153: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 479
Figure 154: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 479
Figure 155: Small Cell Installed Base in North America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 480
Figure 156: Small Cell Unit Shipments in North America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 480
Figure 157: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 481
Figure 158: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 481
Figure 159: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in North America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 482
Figure 160: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in North America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 482
Figure 161: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 483
Figure 162: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 483
Figure 163: SCaaS Revenue in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 484
Figure 164: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 484
Figure 165: DAS Infrastructure Spending in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 485
Figure 166: C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 485
Figure 167: SON Solution Spending in North America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 486
Figure 168: Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Asia Pacific: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 487
Figure 169: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 487
Figure 170: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 488
Figure 171: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 488
Figure 172: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 489
Figure 173: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 489
Figure 174: Small Cell Installed Base in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 490
Figure 175: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 490
Figure 176: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 491
Figure 177: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 491
Figure 178: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 492
Figure 179: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 492
Figure 180: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 493
Figure 181: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 493
Figure 182: SCaaS Revenue in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 494
Figure 183: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 494
Figure 184: DAS Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 495
Figure 185: C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 495
Figure 186: SON Solution Spending in Asia Pacific: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 496
Figure 187: Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Western Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 497
Figure 188: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 497
Figure 189: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 498
Figure 190: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 498
Figure 191: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 499
Figure 192: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 499
Figure 193: Small Cell Installed Base in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 500
Figure 194: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 500
Figure 195: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 501
Figure 196: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 501
Figure 197: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 502
Figure 198: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 502
Figure 199: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 503
Figure 200: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 503
Figure 201: SCaaS Revenue in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 504
Figure 202: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 504
Figure 203: DAS Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 505
Figure 204: C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 505
Figure 205: SON Solution Spending in Western Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 506
Figure 206: Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Eastern Europe: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 507
Figure 207: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 507
Figure 208: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 508
Figure 209: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 508
Figure 210: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 509
Figure 211: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 509
Figure 212: Small Cell Installed Base in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 510
Figure 213: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 510
Figure 214: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 511
Figure 215: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 511
Figure 216: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 512
Figure 217: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 512
Figure 218: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 513
Figure 219: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 513
Figure 220: SCaaS Revenue in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 514
Figure 221: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 514
Figure 222: DAS Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 515
Figure 223: C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 515
Figure 224: SON Solution Spending in Eastern Europe: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 516
Figure 225: Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Middle East & Africa: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 517
Figure 226: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 517
Figure 227: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 518
Figure 228: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 518
Figure 229: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 519
Figure 230: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 519
Figure 231: Small Cell Installed Base in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 520
Figure 232: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 520
Figure 233: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 521
Figure 234: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 521
Figure 235: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 522
Figure 236: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 522
Figure 237: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 523
Figure 238: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 523
Figure 239: SCaaS Revenue in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 524
Figure 240: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 524
Figure 241: DAS Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 525
Figure 242: C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 525
Figure 243: SON Solution Spending in Middle East & Africa: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 526
Figure 244: Annual Throughput of Mobile Network Data Traffic in Latin & Central America: 2010 – 2020 (Exabytes) 527
Figure 245: Mobile Network Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 527
Figure 246: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 528
Figure 247: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 528
Figure 248: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 529
Figure 249: Small Cell & Carrier WiFi Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 529
Figure 250: Small Cell Installed Base in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 530
Figure 251: Small Cell Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 530
Figure 252: Small Cell Unit Shipment Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 531
Figure 253: Small Cell Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 531
Figure 254: Carrier WiFi Installed Base in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 532
Figure 255: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipments in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 532
Figure 256: Carrier WiFi Unit Shipment Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 533
Figure 257: Carrier WiFi Mobile Data Service Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 533
Figure 258: SCaaS Revenue in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 534
Figure 259: Small Cell Backhaul Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 534
Figure 260: DAS Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Billion) 535
Figure 261: C-RAN Infrastructure Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 535
Figure 262: SON Solution Spending in Latin & Central America: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 536
Figure 263: Global HetNet Centric SON Revenue: 2010 - 2020 ($ Million) 538
Figure 264: Mobile Fronthaul Investments by Region: 2014 - 2020 ($ Million) 540
Figure 265: TCO Comparison between LTE and LMR Technologies 541
Figure 266: Global Military, Tactical & Public Safety LTE Small Cell Shipments: 2014 – 2020 542
Figure 267: Global Military, Tactical & Public Safety LTE Small Cell Shipment Revenue: 2014 – 2020 ($ Million) 543
Figure 268: WiFi Enabled LTE Gateway Unit Shipments by Region: 2014 - 2020 (Thousands of Units) 545
Figure 269: WiFi Enabled LTE Gateway Unit Shipment Revenue by Region: 2014 - 2020 ($ Million) 545
Figure 270: Global Spending on Enterprise RAN Solutions: 2014 - 2020 ($ Million) 546


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