Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination

 Published On: Mar, 2016 |    No of Pages: 184 |  Published By: BCC Research-JT Gabrielsen Consulting LLC Research | Format: PDF
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The global cumulative investments in desalination plants reached roughly $21.4 billion in 2015 and should reach nearly $48.2 billion by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.6%.

This report provides:

-An overview of the global market for seawater and brackish water desalination
-Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020
-Descriptions of various desalination methods, including multistage flash distillation, multi-effect distillation, vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and nanofiltration
-Discussion of novel desalination methods, including freezing, gas hydrate formation, membrane distillation, and capacitive deionization
-Examination of the seawater and brackish water desalination plants industry on a worldwide basis, both from a market and application perspective
-Profiles of major and minor companies working on or in conjunction with desalination plants.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This comprehensive technology market research report evaluates the global market for saline water desalination plants. The goals are to provide meaningful information, unbiased analysis, and an assessment of the roles that desalination can play now and in the future of water treatment technology. Technical aspects of both thermal and membrane desalination processes are outlined, as well as a few alternative techniques that may be viable in the future. The report analyzes the water needs of 18 countries in five world regions. Known projects by country for the next five years are presented, along with estimated capacity additions, market values, and growth rates for each world region.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
This report updates a previous BCC Research report on the same topic that was published in 2013. The need for pure water is a problem of global proportions and has become even more urgent since the earlier report became available. Water treatment is an issue of global concern as individuals, communities, industries, countries, and national institutions strive for ways to keep this essential resource available and suitable for use.

Increasingly, desalination systems are selected as an effective option to deliver pure water to the public by transforming saline, brackish, and contaminated water into useable and/or potable products. In part, this increased demand drives the development of technical advances in desalination processes and parallel price drops in the processes, especially membrane-based methods. These advances have made desalination systems affordable for countries that were previously unable to consider the possibility, thus creating a robust and rapidly growing market in which projects and corporate developments are constantly evolving.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report was prepared for a broad audience of business, technical, and regulatory professionals on a global scale. The document will serve as a source of information about the industry; a reference manual on desalination technology; and a data resource for decision-makers who must stay abreast of the state of the art. Its market outlook should be valuable to manufacturers and suppliers, as well as to local, state, and federal governments and foreign legislatures. Engineers, utilities, and corporate planners will benefit from accessing information about the global demand for desalination plants.

SCOPE OF REPORT
Desalination plants range from the very small to large industrial or municipal facilities. This report assesses the market for the larger facilities—those with a daily capacity of 1,000 or more cubic meters of produced water. The study discusses the global water resource status and the growing gap between freshwater resources and water demand from all sectors. Within this global context, the specific growth drivers for and the challenges to the evolution of the desalination equipment market are presented.

A technical overview of the primary desalination technologies is provided, as well as an overview of novel distillation methods. The report presents the hypothetical unit cost of water as produced by the primary technologies as well as the sensitivity of that cost to variations in economic parameters.

Forecasts of annual and cumulative capital investments in desalination plants likely to begin operation during the forecast period of 2015 to 2020 are given. These forecasts include global investments by technology and by region, as well as regional forecasts by technology. Outlooks are provided for important countries within each of the regions examined in the report: North America; Latin America and the Caribbean; Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; Asia and Oceania; and Africa/Rest of World. The outlook sections include information on key projects.

The desalination industry structure, key players, and their market shares are also discussed. Seventy-seven companies are profiled. In addition, a survey of relevant patents for 2013, 2014 and 2015 (through October 2015) is provided.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Research began with a reanalysis of the available technical and business literature, as well as an evaluation of the water treatment industry records that were available to the author. Conversations with industry experts and company representatives, along with a review of their published works, provided the backbone for the evaluation of the desalination industry.

Information sources for the study also included online research, patent literature, and technical journals. In evaluating the global market, information was obtained from the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Department of State, Aquastat, the United Nation’s Global Water Information System (GWI), and publications from the International Desalination Association (IDA), the European Desalination Association, and the Middle East Desalination Research Center. The raw data for all analyses relating to installed desalination plants was sourced from IDA/GWI DesalData Inventory Report 28.

Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION - Complimentary 3 $0
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
INTENDED AUDIENCE
SCOPE OF REPORT
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE
DISCLAIMER

Chapter- 2: SUMMARY 4 $250
Table Summary : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Figure Summary : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020

Chapter- 3: OVERVIEW 14 $683
WATER DEMAND DRIVERS
DESALINATION CONSIDERATIONS

Chapter- 4: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 19 $927
DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES
HYBRID REVERSE OSMOSIS/THERMAL PLANTS
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

Chapter- 5: DESALINATION SYSTEM ECONOMICS: UNIT COST OF WATER 17 $829
OVERVIEW
PLANT CAPACITY AND INITIAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
CAPITAL COST ESTIMATES BY TECHNOLOGY AND PLANT CAPACITY
OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS
ENERGY COSTS AND CARBON EMISSIONS
ALL-IN UNIT COST OF WATER

Chapter- 6: DESALINATION PLANT CAPACITY ADDITIONS AND INVESTMENTS: GLOBAL MARKET OUTLOOK 46 $2244
GLOBAL MARKET STATUS
REGIONAL OUTLOOKS
GLOBAL FORECASTS

Chapter- 7: RESEARCH TRENDS AND NATIONAL DESALINATION R&D PROGRAMS 19 $927
ENERGY RECOVERY
GLOBAL RESEARCH TRENDS
NATIONAL R&D PROGRAMS

Chapter- 8: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 39 $1903
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
COMPANY PROFILES

Chapter- 9: PATENT ANALYSIS 3 $146
PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE
PATENTS BY COMPANY

Chapter- 10: GLOSSARY 5 $244
Table 63 : GLOSSARY

Chapter- 11: ACRONYMS 2 $98
Table 64 : ACRONYMS

Chapter- 12: APPENDIX 13 $634
Table 65 : PATENT SURVEY, 2013
Table 66 : PATENT SURVEY, 2014
Table 67 : PATENT SURVEY, 2015

List of Tables

Summary Table : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 1 : POPULATION PRESSURES ON THE TOP WATER-SCARCE AREAS OF THE WORLD, 2010-2035
Table 2 : GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009
Table 3 : GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, THROUGH 2050
Table 4 : TOP 25 WATER-STRESSED COUNTRIES, 2020-2040
Table 5 : GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014
Table 6 : WATER SALINITY AND SUITABILITY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Table 7 : SALT CONCENTRATIONS OF VARIOUS GLOBAL WATER SOURCES, 2014
Table 8 : RELATIVE WATER HARDNESS LEVEL VALUES
Table 9 : GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014
Table 10 : COMPARISON OF PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS FOR THERMAL AND MEMBRANE DESALINATION METHODS
Table 11 : AVERAGE COST OF DELIVERED WATER BY SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS AND COUNTRY, 2014
Table 12 : GLOBAL DESALINATION PLANT INSTALLATIONS: NUMBER AND CAPACITY, 1945-2015
Table 13 : LARGEST COMMISSIONED DESALINATION PLANTS BY RANK, 2010-2015
Table 14 : GLOBAL SHARE OF INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015
Table 15 : DISTRIBUTION OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SELECTED COUNTRIES, 2014
Table 16 : MEMBRANE MANUFACTURERS AND PRODUCT TYPES, 2014
Table 17 : HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY
Table 18 : HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY
Table 19 : O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY
Table 20 : O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY
Table 21 : VARIATION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY AND FEEDWATER SALINITY
Table 22 : CARBON EMISSIONS OF DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
Table 23 : GLOBAL COST TRENDS FOR MEMBRANE DESALINATION, PRE-1985-2014
Table 24 : GLOBAL SEAWATER DESALINATION COST REDUCTIONS, 1996-2014
Table 25 : COST ALLOCATIONS OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER BY TECHNOLOGY, HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D PLANTS
Table 26 : RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP-DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER
Table 27 : GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2014
Table 28 : TOP 10 COUNTRIES WITH THE LARGEST INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY, 2014
Table 29 : WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010
Table 30 : FRESHWATER WITHDRAWAL OF TOP 10 STATES USING SALINE WATER SOURCES, 2010
Table 31 : U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014
Table 32 : INSTALLED U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2014
Table 33 : U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014
Table 34 : NORTH AMERICAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 35 : NORTH AMERICAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS FOR DESALINATION BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 36 : EUROPEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 37 : EUROPEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 38 : MIDDLE EASTERN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 39 : MIDDLE EASTERN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 40 : ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROWTH'S GDP FORECAST FOR SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES, 2014-2016
Table 41 : CHINESE SEAWATER DESALINATION CAPACITY GOALS BY REGION, 2020
Table 42 : CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS OF SELECTED DESALINATION PLANTS IN CHINA
Table 43 : ASIAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 44 : ASIAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 45 : LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 46 : LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 47 : SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 48 : SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN AND REST OF WORLD CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
Table 49 : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020
Table 50 : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 51 : GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 52 : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
Table 53 : CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF NANOMATERIAL MEMBRANES
Table 54 : RELATIVE COSTS OF CSP DRIVEN DESALINATION NEAR MIDDLE EASTERN BODIES OF WATER
Table 55 : DESALINATION AND WATER PURIFICATION ROADMAP: NATIONAL NEEDS AND RECOMMENDED R&D
Table 56 : DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY STATE
Table 57 : DESALINATION RESEARCH PRIORITIES BY NATIONAL ORGANIZATION
Table 58 : AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION R&D PRIORITY THEMES
Table 59 : GLOBAL AQUA INNOVATION CENTER R&D ROADMAP, 2013-2021
Table 60 : DESALINATION PLANT SUPPLIER MARKET SHARE, 2015
Table 61 : PATENT SHARE BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2013-2015
Table 62 : PATENT SHARE BY COMPANY/INDIVIDUAL PATENT HOLDER*, 2013-2015
Table 63 : GLOSSARY
Table 64 : ACRONYMS
Table 65 : PATENT SURVEY, 2013
Table 66 : PATENT SURVEY, 2014
Table 67 : PATENT SURVEY, 2015

List of Figures

Summary Figure : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION PLANTS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020
Figure 1 : GLOBAL FRESHWATER RESOURCES SHARE BY COUNTRY, 2009
Figure 2 : GLOBAL POPULATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND WATER CONSUMPTION TRENDS FOR ENERGY, 2005-2050
Figure 3 : WATER WITHDRAWALS FOR AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY, AND MUNICIPAL NEEDS BY REGION AND SECTOR, 2015
Figure 4 : GLOBAL GAP BETWEEN EXISTING WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, 2030
Figure 5 : WATER STRESS AREAS BY COUNTRY, 2040
Figure 6 : GLOBAL DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014
Figure 7 : GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY AND SHARE BY WATER SOURCE TYPE, 2014
Figure 8 : TYPES OF ESTABLISHED DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
Figure 9 : GLOBAL COMPARATIVE COSTS OF THERMAL AND MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
Figure 10 : HYPOTHETICAL CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY,
Figure 11 : HYPOTHETICAL UNIT CAPITAL COSTS BY CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGY
Figure 12 : O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL RO DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY
Figure 13 : O&M UNIT COSTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL MULTI-EFFECT DESALINATION PLANTS BY CAPACITY
Figure 14 : EFFECT OF ENERGY PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D RO DESALINATION PLANT
Figure 15 : EFFECT OF OIL PRICE ON UNIT COST OF WATER FOR HYPOTHETICAL 500,000-M3/D MULTI-EFFECT DISTILLATION DESALINATION PLANT
Figure 16 : GLOBAL MULTISTAGE FLASH DESALINATION COST TRENDS, 1955-2012
Figure 17 : COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR BRACKISH AND SEAWATER RO DESALINATION PLANTS
Figure 18 : COST ALLOCATION SHARE OF LEVELIZED COST OF WATER FOR MED AND MSF THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS
Figure 19 : GLOBAL DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY REGION, 2014
Figure 20 : WATER DISTRIBUTION IN THE U.S. BY END-USE SECTOR, 2010
Figure 21 : U.S. DESALINATION CAPACITY SHARE BY SOURCE-WATER TYPE, 2014
Figure 22 : U.S. DESALTED WATER SHARE BY END USE, 2014
Figure 23 : POTENTIALLY USABLE WATER FROM U.S. SALINE AQUIFERS
Figure 24 : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2020
Figure 25 : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED DESALINATION CAPACITY BY REGION, 2013-2020
Figure 26 : GLOBAL ANNUAL INVESTMENTS IN DESALINATION BY REGION, 2013-2020
Figure 27 : GLOBAL CUMULATIVE DESALINATION INVESTMENTS BY REGION, 2013-2020
Figure 28 : RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR COMPATIBLE DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES
Figure 29 : AUSTRALIAN DESALINATION PLANT UNIT COST OF CAPACITY
Figure 30 : DESALINATION PLANT SUPPLIER MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2015


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