External Modulators In Optical Fiber Networks Global Market Forecast (2013-2018)

 Published On: Oct, 2013 |    No of Pages: 378 |  Published By: ElectroniCast Consultants | Format: PDF
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This is the ElectroniCast market forecast of the use of external optical modulators in optical fiber communication networks. Optical modulators encode information onto optical transmissions by converting electronic data signals to optical pulses. Optical fiber network modulators enable wavelength-tunable transmission and support higher-order modulation formats where the independent control of optical amplitude and phase is required.

There are essentially two ways to modulate laser diodes (a) directly and (b) indirectly (externally). In the first case the laser diodes input current is varied to produce varying amounts of light output. In the digital world this works well up to standardized modulation rates of 2.4 Gbps. It has been shown that laser diodes can be modulated beyond 10 Gbps, but the signal begins to become distorted after traveling a short distance; so it needs to be regenerated again.

There are several types of modulators, discussed in this study report. However, current fiber optic transmission systems, there are primarily two types of external modulators used extensively: “Electro-Optic” and “Electro-Absorption.” In this report, the optical modulator market is presented in segments:

• Electro-Optical (E-O) Type
• Electro-Absorption (EA) Type

Electro-optic (EO) Electro-optic modulator (EOM) is an optical device in which a signal-controlled element exhibiting the electro-optic effect is used to modulate a beam of light. The modulation may be imposed on the phase, frequency, amplitude, or polarization of the beam. Modulation bandwidths extending into the gigahertz range are possible with the use of laser-controlled modulators.

The electro-optic effect is the change in the refractive index of a material resulting from the application of a DC or low-frequency electric field, which is caused by forces that distort the position, orientation, or shape of the molecules constituting the material. Generally, a nonlinear optical material (organic polymers have the fastest response rates, and thus are best for this application) with an incident static or low frequency optical field will see a modulation of its refractive index.

Electro-absorption (EA): Electro-absorption modulators (EAM) achieve the desired light modulation by modifying the light absorbing properties of a material with an electric field. The electro-optic effect makes it possible to modify, under the action of an electric field, the refractive index of a material and therefore bring about various functions such as the phase or intensity modulation of a light signal, or the polarization change of said signal. A photonic integrated chip (PIC) in wide use today in fiber optic communication systems is the externally modulated laser (EML), which combines a distributed feed back laser diode with an electro-absorption modulator on a single InP based chip.

Evolution of Integration: The integration of laser diodes, photo diodes, transmitter/receiver (T/R) pairs, passive optical components and other optical components started with the simplest level of hybrid integration in the lower data rate components (155 and 622 Mbps). This expanded steadily into more complex hybrid integration, and into data rate components. Monolithic integration proceeded with EA-type modulators, and other elements with relatively higher incidence in higher data rate (2.5, 10, 12.5, 40 Gbps, etc), E-O modulators have also expanded to higher data rates with integrated packages.

Modulators Used in Integration: Manufacturers are developing integration of laser diode with modulators and optical waveguide fabricated on a single die. Both E-O and EA modulators are undergoing R & D processes. The main “driver,” or main dynamic for the integration of modulators with other components is economics; does the packaged deliver a less costly solution. Of course, there are application “drivers,” such as:

• Smaller package
• Less loss
• More control (temperature) of the single package

Packaging of the modulator is the key driver, along with the main multiple: Economics. ElectroniCast summarizes that the engineering and technology advances will be developed. However, without the cost-effectiveness of the component and a suitable package, meeting all specification and customer demands, a particular modulator product will not be successful. Again, the technology advancements are secondary to the packaging and cost issues.

The market forecast data are segmented by the following functions:

• Consumption Value (US$, million)
• Quantity (number/units)
• Average Selling Prices (ASP $, each)

Electro-optical (EO) modulators are usually stand-alone (discrete packaged) devices; however, electro-absorption (EA) modulators are often integrated with a distributed feedback laser diode to form an electroabsorption-modulated laser (EML) package. In evaluating the average selling price per unit, ElectroniCast adjusts the EA modulator function from the EML package to estimate the EA modulator price (the EA modulator price is a fraction of the total EML packaged module price).

The market data are segmented into the following geographic regions, plus a Global summary:

• America (North, Central and South America)
• EMEA (Europe, Middle Eastern countries, plus Africa)
• APAC (Asia Pacific)

Regional Forecast America currently holds the lead in terms of estimated global consumption value in 2013. The American region is forecast to increase slower in terms of annual growth (2013-2018), therefore, the region is set to eventually slip from the leadership role, giving away from the impressive optical fiber network build-out in the APAC region. The EMEA region, with (typical) shorter reach/lower data rate links has a much small installed-base of external optical modulators; however the region is forecast to increase at a faster clip than the American region, driven high-speed network requirements.

Modulators are a critical part of DWDM network infrastructures that are expanding to support increasing bandwidth requirements. The forecast period will include technology advances and lower cost options for optical modulators in response to the need for more affordable optical transmission links. Modulators used in 40Gbps (and higher rates) links for higher-speed networks are expected to demonstrate strong consumption value growth.

Optical Modulator Consumption: Transmitter Bit-Rate Consumption of specific types of optical modulators used in fiber optic communication links is determined by the customer’s specifications. From a technology perspective, 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps optical interfaces require new techniques to overcome some of the physical impairments and characteristics inherent in optical fibers and ensure proper operation.

At 10 Gbps and lower, DWDM systems could utilize simple amplitude modulation (On-Off Keying) at the transmitter and direct detection at the optical receiver. While these techniques worked well at lower speeds, they are not adequate at higher optical data rates. These specifications often lead to preferences of optical modulator technology type (EA or EO). Also, based on customer requirements of optical transmission bit-rates and the research and development (R&D) time allotted to each technology type, ElectroniCast has forecast consumption trends by transfer data rates. The data presented in this report details optical modulator use for the following transfer rate categories:

• Less Than (<) 10Gbps (such as 2.5 and 5Gbps)
• 10Gbps to Less Than (<) 40Gbps (such as 10, 12.5 and 20Gbps)
• 40Gbps and Higher (=>); (such as 40, 100, 400Gbps and beyond)

The general trends of optical modulator use, by transmission speed, for lower speeds (less than 10Gbps) are commonly directly modulated (not externally modulated); however, there is (some) use of external modulators for speeds of less than (<) 10Gbps.

According to ElectroniCast, optical modulators in the 10 to <40Gbps category lead in worldwide consumption value in 2013.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary 1-1
1.1 Market Forecast Overview 1-1
1.2 Fiber Optic Networks – Overview 1-28
1.3 Fiber Optics Industry: Decade-to-Decade 1-81
1.4 Use of Fiber Optics in Harsh Environments 1-96
2. Regional Market Forecast (America, EMEA and APAC) 2-1
3. Competition 3-1
3.1 Market Share 3-1
3.2 Optical Modulator Companies and Related Entities 3-2 3-1
4. Optical Modulator Technology 4-1
4.1 Technology Research and Explanation 4-1 3-1
4.2 Modulator Definitions 4-38
5. Optical Communication Trends 5-1 5.1 Fiber Network Technology Trends 5-1 5.2 Components 5-18
5.2.1 Overview 5-18
5.2.2 Transmitters and Receivers 5-19
5.2.3 Optical Amplifiers 5-21
5.2.4 Dispersion Compensators 5-21
5.2.5 Fiber Cable 5-23
5.3 Devices and Parts 5-24
5.3.1 Overview 5-24
5.3.2 Emitters and Detectors 5-25
5.3.3 VCSEL & Transceiver Technology Review 5-26
5.3.4 Optoelectronic Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) 5-35
5.3.5 Modulators 5-35
5.3.6 Packages 5-39
5.3.7 Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits 5-39
6. Methodology 6-1
6.1 Research and Analysis Methodology 6-1
6.2 Assumptions of Fiber Optic Component Global Market Forecast 6-5
7. Definitions - Acronyms, Abbreviations, and General Terms 7-1
8. Market Forecast Data Base – Overview and Tutorial 8-1
8.1 Overview 8-1
8.2 Tutorial 8-3

EXCEL – Data Base Spreadsheets
Complete Market Forecast (2013-2018)

List of Figures

1.1.1 100G DP-QPSK LN Modulator 1-5
1.1.2a PDM-QPSK modulator utilizing PLC-LN integration technology 1-6
1.1.2b PDM-QPSK modulator utilizing PLC-LN integration technology 1-6
1.1.3 Silicon-Based Optical Modulator 1-7
1.1.4 Silicon Wafer Containing Photonic-Electronic Microchips 1-8
1.1.5a Chip layout of the 10-channel x 11Gb/s EAM driver array 1-10
1.1.5b Chip layout of the 2-channel x 28Gb/s dual-EAM driver array 1-10
1.1.5c Chip layout of the 4-channel x 28Gb/s receiver array 1-11
1.2.1 FTTP PON Architecture 1-42
1.2.2 Africa: Subocean Fiber Cable 1-71
1.3.1 UDWDM 2500 Channel Filter Module 1-87
1.3.2 Evolution of Research Emphasis During Technology Life Cycle 1-95
2.1 Lithium Niobate Modulator 2-2
2.2 Integrated Laser and EA Modulator 2-3
3.2.1 High Power Fiber Coupled Optical Phase Modulators 3-4
3.2.2 Optical Amplitude Modulators 3-4
3.2.3 EO Modulator for OC-768 applications 3-7
3.2.4 40 to 60Gbps Silicon-Based Optical Modulator 3-10
3.2.5 Integrated silicon optical transceiver for large-volume data transmission 3-12
3.2.6 Issues with WDM using existing silicon photonics methods 3-13
3.2.7 Concept behind newly developed on-chip, integrated 4-wavelength laser 3-14
3.2.8 Prototype 4-wavelength integrated silicon laser 3-15
3.2.9 Scope of application for this technology 3-16
3.2.10 DMT modulation technology 3-18
3.2.11 Diagram of the envisioned 4-channel optical transceiver configuration 3-18
3.2.12 100Gb/s DPSK MZ Modulator 3-21
3.2.13 40Gb/s DPSK MZ Modulator 3-22
3.2.14 Integrated Optical Phase Modulator 3-25
3.2.15 40Gbps Driver-In EML-TOSA Compliant with 40Gbps Miniature Device 3-29
3.2.16 Silicon MOS Optical Modulator Consisting of a M-Z Interferometer Structure 3-35
3.2.17 Optical Function of M-Z Interferometer on Silica PLC 3-38
3.2.18 Illustration of Ultra-High-Speed and High-Capacity Optical Transmissions 3-41
3.2.19 XLMD-MSA 1550nm Cooled EA-DFB TOSA 3-50
3.2.20 20 Gb/s Intensity Modulator 3-51
3.2.21 Optical Interface System Configuration Example 3-57
3.2.22 Illustration of Ultra-High-Speed and High-Capacity Optical Transmissions 3-64
3.2.23 Mach-Zehnder Modulator Operation 3-65
3.2.24 40 Gb/s DQPSK Lithium Niobate Modulator 3-66
3.2.25 Zero-Chirp, 10 GHz Intensity Lithium Niobate Modulator, Integrated Photodiode 3-67
3.2.26 Fully Integrated Mach-Zehnder Optical Modulator Based on Gallium Arsenide 3-70
3.2.27 Fully Integrated I/Q Optical Modulator Based on Gallium Arsenide Technology 3-72
4.1.1 10-Gbit/s directly modulated DFB laser and scope to network system 4-7
4.1.2 Directly Modulated Analog Laser Module 4-8
4.1.3 Structures of a LN Modulator) 3-13
4.1.4 "ZERO" and "ONE" Driving Voltage of the LN Modulator 3-14
4.1.5 Electrical Digital Signals are Transformed into Optical Digital Signal 4-15
4.1.6 Changes in the "phase" of optical signals by applying voltage 4-16
4.1.7 Reducing DC Drift 4-17
4.1.8 Reducing DC Drift, Continued 4-18
4.1.9 Bias Control Configuration by TAP Coupler and PD Integrated Modulator 4-19
4.1.10 Y-Combiner Junction 3-20
4.1.11 Main Optical output and Monitor signal 3-20
4.1.12 40 Gbps Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) Optical Modulator 3-22
4.1.13 40Gbps LN optical modulator with 1.8V drive voltage 3-24
4.1.14 100G DP-QPSK LN Modulator 4-25
4.1.15 Electroabsorption Modulator Structure Illustration 4-28
4.1.16 Pigtailed EA-Based Fiber Optic Module 4-29
4.1.17 EML Line Drawing 4-31
3.1.18 Configuration Using a PEM for Measurement Application 3-31
4.2.1 High-Speed Laser Diode Modules 3-41
4.2.2 Injection Laser with EA modulator 4-42
4.2.3 External Modulation, General Circuit 4-43 Genealogy of VCSELs 4-28 Typical Intra-Office Interconnections 4-32 Trend of Transceiver Packaging Density, Gigabits/Cubic Inch 4-45
6.1.1 Market Research & Forecasting Methodology 6-3

List of Tables

1.1.1 Global Forecast of Optical Modulators in Optical Fiber Networks, by Type ($, Million) 1-3
1.1.2 Global Forecast of Optical Modulators in Optical Fiber Networks, by Date Rate ($, Million) 1-12
1.1.3 Global Forecast of Optical Modulators in Optical Fiber Networks, by Date Rate (Quantity) 1-13
1.1.4 Global Forecast of Optical Modulators in Optical Fiber Networks, by Date Rate (ASP) 1-13
1.1.5 Global Forecast of Optical Modulators in Optical Fiber Networks, by Region ($, Million) 1-14
1.1.6 Global Forecast of Optical Modulators in Optical Fiber Networks, by Date Rate (Quantity) 1-15
1.2.1 Internet Service Providers in Canada 1-49
1.2.2 Research Institutions in Gwangju 1-78
2.1 Global Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Type ($, Million) 2-4
2.2 Global Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Type (Quantity, K) 2-4
2.3 American Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Type ($, Million) 2-5
2.4 American Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Type (Quantity, K) 2-5
2.5 American Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Bit-Rate ($, Million) 2-6
2.6 American Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Bit-Rate (Quantity, K) 2-6
2.7 EMEA Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Type ($, Million) 2-7
2.8 EMEA Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Type (Quantity, K) 2-7
2.9 EMEA Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Bit-Rate ($, Million) 2-8
2.10 EMEA Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Bit-Rate (Quantity, K) 2-8
2.11 APAC Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Type ($, Million) 2-9
2.12 APAC Rim Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Type (Quantity, K) 2-9
2.13 APAC Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Bit-Rate ($, Million) 2-10
2.14 APAC Forecast of Optical Communication Modulators, by Bit-Rate (Quantity, K) 2-10
2.15 List of Countries – APAC Region 2-11
3.1.1 Competition – Market Share (Projected 2013) 3-1
4.1.1 Sample Acousto-Optic Modulator Specifications 4-39
4.1.1 Key Performance Indicators and Measurements of Modulation Coding Technologies 4-26
4.2.1 Sample Acousto-Optic Modulator Specifications 4-35
5.1.1 IEEE 802.3ba 40G/100G - Physical Layer Specifications 5-10

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