Supercapacitor Materials 2017-2027

 Published On: Apr, 2017 |    No of Pages: 206 |  Published By: IDTechEx | Format: PDF
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Supercapacitor Materials 2017-2027 is a drill down from the IDTechEx overview report, "Supercapacitor Technologies and Markets 2016-2026". It has over 200 pages packed with detailed analysis with infograms, conference slides, roadmaps and a ten year forecast 2017-2027. With 78 tables and figures, it is based on global research by PhD level multi-lingual analysts in 2016-7 with frequent updates. The lead author has followed the subject for 20 years and is a globally acknowledged authority on the subject. Indeed, he published the book "Dielectrics" in 1973.  
 
The Executive Summary and Conclusions is insightful, detailed yet easily assimilated. For those with limited time it is sufficient in itself. An introduction focusses mainly on the objectives and challenges with the key components - the active electrodes and electrolytes. Chapters respectively on separators and on electrolytes follow then one on active electrode materials and other important materials. Then there is an extensive chapter on 60 profiled developers and manufacturers.
 
A balanced appraisal explains how in many of the last 20 years they have improved their power density and energy density faster than lithium-ion batteries have done thanks to better hierarchical active electrodes and sometimes exohedral ones plus new electrolytes and so on. However, with its primary focus on the present and future, it shows how new pairings of active electrode and electrolyte materials are now key. Markets of billions of dollars remained elusive, however, due to high price caused by complex processing of basically low cost materials and limited energy density even after all that improvement.
 
The report also explains how, out of the spotlight, very important advances are occurring even beyond market leader Maxwells superlative opening up of new applications with tailored products. In the desert for supercapacitor manufacture - Europe - Skeleton Technologies has started to make supercapacitors partially based on graphene that set the record for power density and Yunasko in the Ukraine set the record for production hybrid supercapacitor energy density - up near lead acid and NiCd batteries and something Nippon Chemical says it will match next year. 
 
The report has a global sweep. From ongoing visits, it explains how, recognising the distaste of the Japanese motor industry for highly toxic electrolytes, Nippon Chemical in Japan jumped from nowhere to number two in supercapacitors in the world by making supercapacitors for cars that had benign electrolytes. "Supercapacitor Materials 2017-2027" expresses the view that, partly because its supercapacitor suppliers have become more capable, China has recently reversed its policy on traditional hybrid vehicles, declaring that in 2030, 30% of cars made would be hybrids that do not plug in - candidates for supercapacitors. With GM now adopting them, supercapacitors are rapidly taking market share of stop-start systems for conventional vehicles.
 
Supercapacitor Materials 2017-2027" finds that electrolytes with totally new chemistry are pairing well with new exohedral active electrodes. Hybrid capacitors are benefitting from totally new electrolyte-electrode pairings in the laboratory at least. Are the old rules of extremely hydrophobic assembly following complex high temperature processes really necessary for best performance?  Everything is being questioned now. 
 
Learn how, in 2016-7, researchers at MIT and elsewhere developed a supercapacitor using no conductive carbon that will potentially store much more power. Learn how the British have entered the fray, announcing new large molecule electrolytes based on large organic molecules composed of many repeated sub-units and bonded together to form a 3-dimensional network. Appraise the opportunity to match lithium-ion battery energy density without the short cycle life, poor power density and safety issues of a battery. Are we going to have "batteries" that can be fully discharged for safe transit and safe retrieval in a car crash unlike real Li-ion batteries? Learn how, in three countries, researchers are making supercapacitors that are load-bearing structures and others demonstrate stretchable supercapacitor fibers being woven, things batteries cannot do even when solid state because they swell and shrink on cycling. Other old certainties are being questioned as well, each advance potentially opening up large new applications. A multibillion dollar market for the materials is in prospect but not overnight. Now is the time to investigate and invest and the report, "Supercapacitor Materials 2017-2027" goes right to the added value emerging. 
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Comparison with batteries
1.2. Comparison with electrolytic capacitors
1.3. Focus on functional materials
1.4. Options: operating principles
1.5. What needs improving?
1.5.1. Replacing Li-ion batteries
1.5.2. Dramatic benefit from energy density increase
1.5.3. Example in action
1.6. Construction and cost structure
1.7. Choices of material: important parameters to improve
1.7.1. Carbon is unassailable?
1.7.2. Metal-organic frameworks
1.7.3. How to improve cost and energy density
1.7.4. Voltage and area improvement
1.7.5. Highest power density
1.7.6. Series resistance
1.7.7. Time constant
1.7.8. Leakage current
1.8. Progress with electrode materials
1.9. Electrolytes
1.9.1. Comparison of options
1.9.2. Higher voltage electrolytes
1.9.3. Aqueous electrolytes become attractive
1.9.4. Organic ionic electrolytes
1.9.5. Acetonitrile concern
1.10. Supercabatteries
1.10.1. Graphene a strong focus
1.11. Graphene goes well with the new electrolytes
1.11.1. Other reasons for graphene
1.11.2. Graphene advance in 2015
1.11.3. Stretchable supercapacitors in 2014-15
1.12. Materials maturity and profit
1.13. Market forecast 2017-2027
1.14. Hemp pseudo graphene?
1.15. Supercapacitors on the smaller scale
1.16. Supercapacitor materials news
1.16.1. ETRI Korea exceptional supercapacitors - April 2016
1.16.2. FASTcap advances - September 2016
1.16.3. Metal oxide frameworks - October 2016
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. Where supercapacitors fit in
2.2. Supercapacitors and supercabattery basics
2.2.1. Basic geometry
2.2.2. Charging
2.2.3. Discharging and cycling
2.2.4. Energy density
2.2.5. Battery-like variants: pseudocapacitors, supercabatteries
2.2.6. Pseudocapacitance
2.2.7. New supercabattery designs
2.3. Supercapacitors and alternatives compared
2.4. Fundamentals
2.5. Laminar biodegradable option
2.6. Structural supercapacitors
2.6.1. Queensland UT supercap car body
2.6.2. Fiber supercapacitors
2.6.3. Stretchable Capacitors
2.6.4. Microcapacitors
2.6.5. Embedding with Flexible Printed Circuits
2.6.6. Electrical component hitches a ride with mechanical support
2.6.7. AMBER activity of the CRANN Institute at Trinity College Dublin
2.7. Electrolyte improvements ahead
2.7.1. Aqueous vs non-aqueous electrolytes
2.7.2. Polyacenes or polypyrrole
2.7.3. New ionic liquid electrolytes
2.7.4. Prospect of radically different battery and capacitor shapes
2.8. Equivalent circuits and limitations
2.8.1. Equivalent circuits
2.8.2. Example of fixing the limitations
2.9. Supercapacitor sales have a new driver: safety
2.9.1. Why supercapacitors replace batteries today
2.9.2. Troublesome life of rechargeable batteries
2.9.3. So where are we now?
2.9.4. What next?
2.9.5. Good cell and system design
2.9.6. Faster improvement
2.9.7. Complex electronic controls
2.9.8. The air industry benchmarks badly
2.10. Disruptive supercapacitors now taken more seriously
2.10.1. Lithium-ion batteries still ahead in ten years
2.10.2. Supercapacitors first choice for safety?
2.11. Change of leadership of the global value market?
2.11.1. Maxwell Technologies
2.11.2. Largest orders today: Meidensha
2.12. Battery and fuel cell management with supercapacitors
2.13. Graphene vs other carbon forms in supercapacitors
2.13.1. Exohedral and hierarchical options both set records
2.13.2. Hierarchical with interconnected pores: breakthrough in 2015
2.14. Environmentally friendlier and safer materials
2.15. Printing supercapacitors
2.16. New manufacturing sites in Europe
2.17. Modelling insights
3. SEPARATORS
4. ELECTROLYTES BY MANUFACTURER
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Toxicity
4.3. Gel electrolytes
4.4. Ionic liquids
4.5. Electrolytes compared by manufacturer.
5. ELECTRODE MATERIALS AND OTHERS
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Electrodes and other materials compared by company
5.3. Materials optimisation
5.3.1. Requirements to beat batteries
5.3.2. Focus on functional materials
5.3.3. Rapid demand increase
5.3.4. What needs improving?
5.3.5. Replacing Li-ion batteries partly or wholly
5.3.6. Dramatic benefit from energy density increase
5.3.7. Materials aspects
5.3.8. Carbon is unassailable
5.3.9. 2D titanium carbide
5.3.10. How to improve cost and energy density
5.3.11. Voltage and area improvement
5.3.12. Materials for highest power density today
5.3.13. Series resistance
5.3.14. Time constant
5.4. Progress with electrode materials
5.5. Graphene
5.5.1. Other reasons for graphene
5.5.2. Self assembling graphene
5.6. Higher voltage electrolytes
5.7. Aqueous electrolytes become attractive
5.8. Organic ionic electrolytes
5.9. Acetonitrile concern
5.10. Supercabattery improvement
6. COMPANY PROFILES
6.1. 2D Carbon Graphene Material Co., Ltd
6.2. Abalonyx, Norway
6.3. Airbus, France
6.4. Aixtron, Germany
6.5. AMO GmbH, Germany
6.6. Asbury Carbon, USA
6.7. AZ Electronics, Luxembourg
6.8. BASF, Germany
6.9. Cambridge Graphene Centre, UK
6.10. Cambridge Graphene Platform, UK
6.11. Carben Semicon Ltd, Russia
6.12. Carbon Solutions Inc., USA
6.13. Catalyx Nanotech Inc. (CNI), USA
6.14. CRANN, Ireland
6.15. Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), USA
6.16. Grafoid, Canada
6.17. GRAnPH Nanotech, Spain
6.18. Graphene Devices, USA
6.19. Graphene NanoChem, UK
6.20. Graphensic AB, Sweden
6.21. Harbin Mulan Foreign Economic and Trade Company, China
6.22. HDPlas, USA
6.23. Head, Austria
6.24. HRL Laboratories, USA
6.25. IBM, USA
6.26. iTrix, Japan
6.27. JiangSu GeRui Graphene Venture Capital Co., Ltd.
6.28. Jinan Moxi New Material Technology Co., Ltd
6.29. JSR Micro, Inc. / JM Energy Corp.
6.30. Lockheed Martin, USA
6.31. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA
6.32. Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany
6.33. Momentive, USA
6.34. Nanjing JCNANO Tech Co., LTD
6.35. Nanjing XFNANO Materials Tech Co.,Ltd
6.36. Nanostructured & Amorphous Materials Inc., USA
6.36.1. Nippon ChemiCon/ United ChemiCon Japan
6.37. Nokia, Finland
6.38. Pennsylvania State University, USA
6.39. Power Booster, China
6.40. Quantum Materials Corp, India
6.41. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), USA
6.42. Rice University, USA
6.43. Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey, USA
6.44. Samsung Electronics, Korea
6.45. Samsung Techwin, Korea
6.46. SolanPV, USA
6.47. Spirit Aerosystems, USA
6.48. Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Korea
6.48.1. Taiyo Yuden
6.49. Texas Instruments, USA
6.50. Thales, France
6.51. The Sixth Element
6.52. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), USA
6.53. University of Manchester, UK
6.54. University of Princeton, USA
6.55. University of Southern California (USC), USA
6.56. University of Surrey UK
6.57. University of Texas at Austin, USA
6.58. University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
1.1. Comparison of features of lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors
1.2. Comparison of features of supercapacitors with electrolytic capacitors
1.3. Some of the better advances in experimental capacitance density achieved by electrode materials
1.4. Specific capacitance for various electrode materials
1.5. Comparison of supercapacitor properties by material with problem areas in red
1.6. Graphene supercapacitor and supercabattery research results. Red equivalent to present or future lithium-ion batteries. Yellow equivalent to lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries.
2.1. Parameters of production supercapacitors compared with electrolytic capacitors, pseudocapacitors and lithium-ion batteries
2.2. Aqueous vs non aqueous electrolytes in supercapacitors
2.3. Properties conferred by aqueous vs non-aqueous electrolytes in supercapacitors and supercabatteries
4.1. Electrolytes used - acetonitrile solvent, other solvent or ionic liquid - by supercapacitor and lithium supercabattery manufacturers and putative manufacturers.
5.1. Electrode materials, electrolytes and formation processes for supercapacitors and supercabatteries
5.2. Comparison of features of batteries and supercapacitors
5.3. Comparison of features of supercapacitors with electrolytic capacitors
5.4. Some of the better advances in experimental capacitance density achieved by electrode materials
5.5. Graphene supercapacitor and supercabattery research results. Red equivalent to present or future lithium-ion batteries. Yellow equivalent to lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries.
1.1. Narrowing the gap. Energy density of supercapacitors/ lithium-ion capacitors and lithium-ion batteries 2015-2027
1.2. Energy density roadmap supercapacitor vs Li battery 2016 - 2028
1.3. Three basic options for supercapacitor technology
1.4. Dialogue of the deaf
1.5. Supercapacitor construction
1.6. Supercapacitor cost breakdown
1.7. Iterative improvement of energy density with cost - following the best bets.
1.8. A more detailed look at options for improving the materials used in supercapacitors
1.9. Some higher voltage organic solute and organic ionic electrolytes compared.
1.10. Specific capacitance vs identified area for graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes
1.11. Features of life cycle
1.12. Evolution matrix for supercapacitor materials
1.13. Capacitor and Supercapacitor players and estimated revenue
1.14. Competitive landscape
1.15. Market forecast (>100 Farad market - supercapacitor penetration by segment 2017-2027
1.16. Supercapacitor focus for small wearable healthcare devices
2.1. Some of the options and some of the suppliers in the spectrum between conventional capacitors and rechargeable batteries with primary markets shown in yellow
2.2. Nippon Chemi-Con non-toxic supercapacitor used for fast charge-discharge in a Mazda sports car
2.3. Symmetric supercapacitor construction
2.4. Symmetric compared to asymmetric supercapacitor construction
2.5. Yunasko approach to supercabatteries
2.6. Summary of ultracapacitor device characteristics
2.7. Side view of a structural supercapacitor shows the blue polymer electrolyte that glues the silicon electrodes together
2.8. The engineers suspended a heavy laptop from the supercapacitor to demonstrate its strength.
2.9. Cambridge U. stretchable supercapacitor
2.10. Micro capacitor by Cambridge University
2.11. The structural supercapacitor as a flat laminate (top) and as a car trunk lid (bottom) that can light LED lights
2.12. Simplest equivalent circuit for an electrolytic capacitor
2.13. Transmission line equivalent circuit for a supercapacitor
5.1. Narrowing the gap. Energy density of supercapacitors/ lithium-ion capacitors and lithium-ion batteries 2015-2027
5.2. Options for improving the materials used in supercapacitors
5.3. Some higher voltage organic solute and organic ionic electrolytes compared.
6.1. The amount of composite materials used in recent airbus planes
6.2. The amount of structural weight of composites used in planes in %, as a function of year
6.3. Effect of different nanomaterials in resin fracture toughness
6.4. Locations and products of Cambridge Graphene Platform
6.5. Improvement formulation with addition of GRIDSTM 180
6.6. Schematic of the epitaxial process used to grow graphene
6.7. Hotmelt-Prepreg-Production
6.8. LM graphene synthesis and processing R&D
6.9. The graphene microchip mostly based on relatively standard chip processing technology
6.10. Concept version of the photoelectrochemical cell
6.11. This filament containing about 30 million carbon nanotubes absorbs energy from the sun
6.12. The difference between dispersible graphene and non-redispersible graphene
6.13. Mazda car supercapacitor exhibited at EVS26 Los Angeles 2012
6.14. Nippon Chemi-Con low resistance DXE Series priority shown in 2012
6.15. Exhibit by United ChemiCon at EVS26 Los Angeles
6.16. Nippon ChemiCon latest developments using CNT and carbon nanofiber CNF
6.17. Silicon carbide wafer
6.18. A new method for using water to tune the band gap of the nanomaterial graphene
6.19. A mesh of carbon nanotubes supports one-atom-thick sheets of graphene that were produced with a new fluid-processing technique.
6.20. A three-terminal single-transistor amplifier made of graphene
6.21. CNT films from Rutgers University
6.22. Comparison of carbon fibre and graphene reinforcement
6.23. Taiyo Yuden ultra-small and can type supercapacitors
6.24. Making graphene supercapacitors
6.25. High-performance laser scribed graphene electrodes (LSG)
6.26. Graphene supercapacitor properties
6.27. Flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitors
6.28. Graphene OPV
6.29. The resulting film is photographed atop a color photo to show its transparency
6.30. Fabrication steps, leading to regular arrays of single-wall nanotubes (bottom)
6.31. The colourless disk with a lattice of more than 20,000 nanotube transistors in front of the USC sign
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