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The LFG Package consists of 6 parts: 1. 163 page Report, 2. LFG Companies Directory-Excel, 3. LFG Project Directory-Excel Free Bonuses: 4. Landfill Gas Emissions Model Calculator-Excel 5. Emission Reductions and Environmental and Energy Benefits Calculator-Excel 6. LFG Conference Proceedings-PDF 1. Landfill Gas as an Energy Source Report-PDF - 163 Pages Executive Summary: With rising concern about energy sources, landfill gas (LFG) has emerged as an easily available, economically competitive, and proven energy resource. As of January 2005, there were 375 LFG energy (LFGE) projects in the United States, generating electricity or providing direct-use energy sources for boilers, furnaces, and other applications. Approximately 100 direct-use LFGE projects in operation burned over 70 billion cubic feet (bcf) of LFGE in 2004. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP), there are still more than 600 landfills that could be developed, offering a potential gas flow capacity of over 280 bcf per year. LFG is a byproduct of the decay process of organic matter in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The gas typically contains approximately 50% methane and 50% carbon dioxide, with some additional trace compounds. The heat value of LFG ranges from 400 to 600 British thermal units (Btu) per cubic foot and can burn in virtually any application with minor adjustments to air/fuel ratios. The use of LFG provides environmental and economic benefits, and users of LFG have achieved significant cost savings compared to traditional fuel usage due primarily to the fact that LFG costs are consistently lower than the cost of natural gas. Additionally, because LFG is comprised of approximately 50% methane, a major greenhouse gas, reducing landfill methane emissions by utilizing it as a fuel helps businesses, energy providers, and communities protect the environment and build a more sustainable energy future. This report on landfill gas treatment and utilization examines the LFG industry and contains basic information about LFG, its composition, production, conditions affecting its production, movement, and transport; and health hazards and safety issues related to LFG. The report also contains an overview of LFG sampling, treatment procedures, control measures, regulatory requirements, and much more. This is a comprehensive information bank for decision makers in the energy industry and an information source for others interested in this rapidly-growing industry. 2. LFG Company Directory - Excel Contact information including address, phone, fax, email, website. Companies are broken up into categories: General - 105 contacts Project Development - 153 contacts Financial/Legal - 64 contacts LFG Electric Use - 1 contacts LFG Direct Use - 31 contacts Alternative Fuel - 73 contacts Treatment - 42 contacts Installation and Operation – 84 contacts 3. LFG Project Directory - Excel 2,520 Landfill gas projects including: Landfill name Location Waste in tons Owner Developer Project status - (potential, candidates, operational, shutdown, under construction) Project start and end dates Utilization type Project type MW capacity Emissions reductions 4. Landfill Gas Emissions Model Calculator.Excel with Manual.PDF The Landfill Gas Emissions Model is an automated tool for estimating emission rates from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The model was developed by the EPA Office of Research and Development-National Risk Management Research Laboratory, and the Clean Air Technology Center. The model can be used to estimate total landfill gas (LFG) and methane generation, as well as emissions of carbon dioxide, nonmethane organic compounds, and individual air pollutants from landfills. Model results can be used to estimate the recoverable methane available for a potential landfill gas energy (LFGE) project. LandGEM can also be used by landfill owners and operators to determine if a landfill is subject to the control requirements of the federal New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for new MSW landfills, the emission guidelines for existing MSW landfills, or the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for MSW landfills. 5. Emission Reductions and Environmental and Energy Benefits for Landfill Gas Energy Projects Calculator - Excel •Electricity generation projects •Direct-Use projects Output •Avoided Equivalent Emissions Reduced Calculations for Electricity Generation Projects •Direct Equivalent Emissions Reduced Calculations for Direct-Use Projects •Avoided Equivalent Emissions Reduced Calculations for Direct-Use Projects •Environmental and Energy Benefit Equivalencies 6. LMOP Feb 2006 Conference Proceedings: •Keynote Address - Al Hildreth, Manager, Energy and Utility Services, General Motors •First LFG-Powered Biodiesel Project in the Country, City of Denton, Texas - Charles Fiedler and Jake Stewart, Biodiesel Industries •Transmission v. Distribution: A Pipeline Safety Overview - David Mauney, CPL Systems •New Opportunities for Small Landfills - Chuck Foster, Commonwealth Green Energy •LFGE Development in Mexico - Josh Roth, SCS Engineers & Francisco Grajales Cravioto, World Bank •Methane to Markets Update - Brian Guzzone, LMOP •Energy Policy Act of 2005 - What’s In It For Landfill Gas? - Laura Jones •Tax Monetization Strategies for LFG Electrical Generation Facility Developers - Paul Burkett, Rath, Young and Pignatelli •Section 29 & Section 45 Production Tax Credit Issues for Financiers, Developers & Operators of New and Existing LFG Facilities - Stephen Somerville, Clean Power Income Fund •The Emergence of Carbon Financing - Claude Devillers, Merzbach Group, LLC •Recent Activity in the Sale of Greenhouse Gas Credits in the U.S. and Other Countries - Bruce Maillet, Shaw Environmental, Inc. •Verifying GHG Reductions from LFG Energy Projects - Christina Magerkurth, First Environment •Selling LFG to Not 1, Not 2, But 4 End Users in Pennsylvania - Joel Zylstra, President, Granger Energy •Producing Electricity (and Tomatoes) with LFG - Peter Zeliff, Innovative Energy Systems, Inc. •The Landfill Gas Energy Recovery Hoax - Peter Anderson, Center for a Competitive Waste Industry •Operational Costs and Other Considerations of LFG Cleaning for Various Prime Movers - Matthew Nourot, Gas Recovery Systems, LLC Permitting Challenges in Ozone Non-Attainment Areas - Shelley Cohen, Ameresco •A Balancing Act: LFG Development v. Regulatory Compliance), Pete Carrico, SCS Field Services •Heating Landfill Facilities Using Infrared Heaters – Part 2 and Project 2 - Darrin Dillah, SCS Engineers •Bioreactor Landfills, LFG Generation and GHG Credits - Roger Green, Waste Management •Pipeline Quality Gas – A LFG Utilization Alternative Soon Ready to Come in from the Cold - Greg McCarron, SCS Energy •Landfill Offsets Projects and GHG Credits - Senior Vice President, Chicago Climate Exchange •LFG’s Role in RPS Compliance in New England - Pat Stanton, Conservation Services Group •Landfill Gas-to-Energy Projects in Maryland - Daniel Goldstein and Robert Sawyer, Environmental Resources Management •New Opportunities for Turbines - Mark Hughes, Solar Turbines Inc. •What’s LMOP Up To? New Partner Products and Services - Rachel Goldstein, US EPA and Chris Voell, US EPA
Table of Contents:-Uses of Collected Landfill GasTypes of LandfillsProductionTransferRegulatory EnvironmentCarbon CreditsSafety and Health IssuesAssessing Landfill Gas HazardsEnvironmental Impact of Landfill GasesControl Measures for Landfill GasesSampling MethodsLandfill Gas Collection TechnologiesPrimary Pretreatment Technologies for Landfill GasSecondary Pretreatment TechnologiesElectricity Generation from LFGFunding Landfill Gas ProjectsSmall LFG Projects Potential166 Case StudiesStatus of LFGE Project Development and Candidate Landfills by StateLFG ComponentsBacterial Decomposition PhasesWaste Energy Consumption by Type and Energy Use Sector, 2003 (Trillion Btu)Electricty Net Generation from Renewable Energy by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source, 2000-2004 - (Thousand Kilowatthours)Purchase and Sale of Class B Interests - Closing Documents ChecklistGlossary