Well Stimulation Materials

 Published On: Jun, 2014 |    No of Pages: 335 |  Published By: Freedonia | Format: PDF
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Growing shale gas, tight oil production to drive gains
The rapid growth in production of unconventional resources like shale gas and tight oil has had a ripple effect throughout the US economy. After years of declines, US crude oil production is rising again and abundant low cost natural gas resources are rejuvenating the US manufacturing sector. This will provide opportunities for manufacturers of well stimulation materials across the board as oil and gas operators continue to require large amounts of proppants, as well as chemicals like biocides, guar gum, and surfactants.

Rising natural gas prices to boost gas production
Historically, the well stimulation market was focused on the stimulation of mature wells. However, success in the Barnett Shale in the early 2000s with techniques such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing led to increased stimulation of new wells upon completion. Today hydraulic fracturing is used during the completion of nearly all new wells in the US, both unconventional and conventional, although product use per well is significantly lower for the latter. While activity has cooled somewhat in gas producing areas in recent years due to low natural gas prices, operators have focused instead on liquid-rich formations, more than making up for any decline. Moving forward, as natural gas prices climb, operator activity -- and well stimulation material demand -- in areas with substantial gas deposits is expected to accelerate.

Increasing well depths among product sales drivers
Product sales will be driven not only by overall levels of industry activity but also by increasing well depths and continued efforts to maximize well output and increase completion efficiency. The continued use of high volume hydraulic fracturing will require significant amounts of fracturing fluids and proppants. As plays enter the development stage, operators will work to optimize their process designs, which will lead to continuing changes in the types of proppants and fluids used. For example in recent years gelled fluids lost ground to slickwater formulations but now operators are moving away from slickwater in some areas in favor of hybrid fluids or other products that improve well output while minimizing environmental impact. A significant amount of this new unconventional resource development is taking place in areas that were not traditional hotbeds of oil and gas activity. For example, despite years of steady oil and gas production, North Dakota and Pennsylvania were not considered major oil and gas producing states until the development of the Bakken and Marcellus formations, respectively. As a result, a number of new proppant production and storage facilities have opened in these states.

Aging wells to benefit restimulation materials
As existing conventional wells continue to age and a number of wells in emerging unconventional formations reach maturity in the coming years, average per well output will fall as the number of new wells is unable to offset the production declines in legacy wells. This will result in a greater number of wells requiring restimulation, creating healthy demand for products utilized in these activities. Additional well stimulation material sales opportunities will present themselves should production from plays with considerable potential, like the Monterey and Wolfcamp, become commercially viable over the next 10 years.

Study coverage
This Freedonia industry study, Well Stimulation Materials, presents historical demand data (2003, 2008 and 2013) plus forecasts for 2018 and 2023 by product and US region. The study also considers market environment factors, evaluates company market share and profiles 51 industry players.

INTRODUCTION xii

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1

II. MARKET ENVIRONMENT 4
General 4
Macroeconomic Environment 6
Petroleum & Natural Gas Overview 10
Petroleum Outlook 13
Pricing 16
Production 18
Well Completions 20
Natural Gas Outlook 22
Pricing 25
Production 26
Well Completions 31
Producing Well Overview 32
Well Completion Overview 34
Market Volatility 36
Stimulation Material Pricing & Product Mix 39
Environmental & Regulatory Considerations 42
Federal 42
State & Local 45
International Environment 47

III. TECHNOLOGY 50
General 50
Well Drilling Processes 52
Horizontal Drilling 53
Multilateral Drilling 55
Well Completion Processes 56
Well Stimulation Processes 57
Hydraulic Fracturing 58
Multistage Fracturing 61
Refracturing 61
Other Fracturing Techniques 62
Acidizing 62
Other Well Stimulation Technologies 65
Fracturing Fluids 66
Crosslinked Gel 67
Linear Gel 69
Slickwater 71
Hybrid System 74
Gas-Based Fluids 76
Other Fracturing Fluids 78
Acidizing Fluids 79

IV. PRODUCTS 81
General 81
Proppants 83
Sand 86
Coated 88
Raw 91
Ceramic 93
Other Proppants 96
Base Fluid Materials 98
Polymer Gelling Agents 101
Guar Gum 103
Other 104
Acids 106
Industrial Gases 109
Surfactants 112
Friction Reducers 114
Crosslinking Agents 116
Breakers 118
Other Base Fluid Materials 121
Fluid Additives 123
Biocides 126
Corrosion & Scale Inhibitors 128
Other Fluid Additives 130
Other Well Stimulation Materials 133

V. REGIONS 136
General 136
Producing Wells 140
Wells Completed 143
Well Stimulation Material Regional Demand 145
Southern Region 147
Oil & Gas Well Overview 148
Producing Wells 148
Wells Completed 150
Well Stimulation Material Demand 151
Texas 154
Louisiana 158
Arkansas 160
Other 162
Midwestern Region 164
Oil & Gas Well Overview 165
Producing Wells 165
Wells Completed 167
Well Stimulation Material Demand 169
North Dakota 172
Oklahoma 174
Ohio 176
Other 178
Eastern Region 180
Oil & Gas Well Overview 181
Producing Wells 181
Wells Completed 182
Well Stimulation Material Demand 184
Pennsylvania 186
West Virginia 188
Other 190
Western Region 192
Oil & Gas Well Overview 192
Producing Wells 193
Wells Completed 195
Well Stimulation Material Demand 197
Colorado 200
Wyoming 202
Other 204

VI. INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 207
General 207
Market Share 210
Proppants 211
Chemicals & Gases Market Share 216
Marketing & Distribution 220
Cooperative Agreements 222
Acquisitions & Divestitures 225
Research & Development 229
Company Profiles 231
Adomite, see Ecolab
Air Liquide Group 232
Air Products and Chemicals Incorporated 234
Akzo Nobel NV 236
Albemarle Corporation 238
Ashland Incorporated 239
Atlas Resin Proppants, see Badger Mining
Badger Mining Corporation 241
Baker Hughes Incorporated 242
BASF SE 245
Berkshire Hathaway Incorporated 247
Cadre Material Products LLC 249
CARBO Ceramics Incorporated 250
Champion Technologies, see Ecolab
Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC 254
Clariant International Limited 255
CorsiTech, see Ecolab
D&I Silica, see Hi-Crush Partners
Dorf Ketal Chemicals India Private Limited 257
Dow Chemical Company 258
Drilling Specialties, see Chevron Phillips Chemical
DuPont (EI) de Nemours 261
Ecolab Incorporated 263
Economy Polymers & Chemicals 266
Elementis plc 267
EPCO Carbon Dioxide Products, see Air Products
and Chemicals
Erna Frac Sand LC 269
Fairmount Minerals Limited 270
Ferus Incorporated 273
flexFrac Proppant Sand Suppliers LLC 274
FMC Corporation 275
Fores Limited 276
Frac-Chem, see Koch Industries
FTS International Services LLC 277
Georgia-Pacific Chemicals, see Koch Industries
Halliburton Company 279
Hi-Crush Partners LP 282
Imerys SA 284
Kemira Oyj 286
Kinder Morgan Energy Partners LP 287
Koch Industries Incorporated 290
Linde Group 292
Lonza Group Limited 293
Lubrizol, see Berkshire Hathaway
M-I SWACO, see Schlumberger
Messina Incorporated 294
Mineração Curimbaba Limitada 296
Momentive Performance Materials Holdings LLC 297
Nalco Holding, see Ecolab
Nexeo Solutions Holdings LLC 300
Novecare, see Solvay
Optiblend Industries, see PfP Industries
Oxane Materials Incorporated 301
Pattison Sand Company LLC 302
Permian Mud Service, see Ecolab
PeroxyChem LLC 303
PfP Industries LLC 304
Pioneer Natural Resources Company 305
Praxair Incorporated 307
Preferred Sands LLC 309
Premier Silica, see Pioneer Natural Resources
Progressive Resources, see Air Liquide Group
PyraMax Ceramics, see Imerys
Rio Tinto Group 311
Roemex Limited 312
Saint-Gobain 313
Santrol, see Fairmount Minerals
Schlumberger Limited 315
SCR-Sibelco NV 318
Sierra Frac Sand LLC 320
Solvay SA 321
Superior Silica Sands LLC 323
Texas Silica LLC 324
Unimin, see SCR-Sibelco
US Borax, see Rio Tinto Group
US Silica Holdings Incorporated 325
Weatherford International Limited 327
Other Companies Mentioned in Study 329

LIST OF TABLES

SECTION I -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Summary Table 3

SECTION II -- MARKET ENVIRONMENT
1 Macroeconomic Indicators 10
2 Petroleum & Natural Gas Supply & Demand 13
3 Petroleum Supply & Demand 15
4 Petroleum Production & Producing Wells 19
5 Natural Gas Supply & Demand 24
6 Natural Gas Production & Producing Wells 28
7 Producing Wells by Type & Formation 34
8 Well Completions by Type & Formation 36
9 Well Stimulation Material Market, 2003-2013 38
10 Prices for Selected Well Stimulation Materials 41

SECTION IV -- PRODUCTS
1 Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 82
2 Proppant Demand by Type 85
3 Sand Proppant Demand by Type 88
4 Coated Sand Proppant Demand 90
5 Raw Sand Proppant Demand 93
6 Ceramic Proppant Demand 96
7 Other Proppant Demand 98
8 Base Fluid Material Demand by Type 100
9 Polymer Gelling Agent Demand by Type 102
10 Guar Gum Gelling Agent Demand 104
11 Other Polymer Gelling Agent Demand by Type 106
12 Acid Demand in Well Stimulation 108
13 Industrial Gases Demand by Type 111
14 Surfactant Demand in Well Stimulation 114
15 Friction Reducer Demand 116
16 Crosslinking Agent Demand 118
17 Breaker Demand 121
18 Other Base Fluid Material Demand by Type 123
19 Fluid Additive Demand by Type 125
20 Biocide Demand in Well Stimulation 128
21 Corrosion & Scale Inhibitor Demand in Well Stimulation 130
22 Other Fluid Additive Demand by Type 132
23 Other Well Stimulation Material Demand 135

SECTION V -- REGIONS
1 Oil & Gas Producing States by Region 140
2 Producing Wells by Region 142
3 Wells Completed by Region 144
4 Well Stimulation Material Demand by Region 146
5 Southern Region: Producing Wells by Type, Formation, & State 149
6 Southern Region: Wells Completed by Type, Formation, & State 151
7 Southern Region: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type & State 153
8 Texas: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 158
9 Louisiana: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 160
10 Arkansas: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 162
11 Other Southern States: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 164
12 Midwestern Region: Producing Wells by Type, Formation, & State 167
13 Midwestern Region: Wells Completed by Type, Formation, & State 169
14 Midwestern Region: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type & State 171
15 North Dakota: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 174
16 Oklahoma: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 176
17 Ohio: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 178
18 Other Midwestern States: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 180
19 Eastern Region: Producing Wells by Type, Formation, & State 182
20 Eastern Region: Wells Completed by Type, Formation, & State 184
21 Eastern Region: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type & State 185
22 Pennsylvania: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 188
23 West Virginia: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 190
24 Other Eastern States: Well Stimulation Material Demand 191
25 Western Region: Producing Wells by Type, Formation, & State 195
26 Western Region: Completed Wells by Type, Formation, & State 197
27 Western Region: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type & State 199
28 Colorado: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 202
29 Wyoming: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 204
30 Other Western Areas: Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type 206

SECTION VI -- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
1 US Well Stimulation Material Sales by Company, 2013 209
2 Selected Cooperative Agreements 224
3 Selected Acquisitions & Divestitures 227

LIST OF CHARTS

SECTION I -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

SECTION II -- MARKET ENVIRONMENT
1 US Petroleum Consumption, 2003-2013 16
2 Crude Oil Prices, 2003-2013 18
3 US Petroleum Production, 2003-2013 20
4 Petroleum Well Completions, 2003-2013 22
5 US Natural Gas Consumption, 2003-2013 24
6 Natural Gas Prices, 2003-2013 26
7 US Natural Gas Production, 2003-2013 29
8 Natural Gas Producing States, 2013 30
9 Natural Gas Well Completions, 2003-2013 32
10 Well Stimulation Material Market, 2003-2013 39
11 World Well Stimulation Material Demand, 2013 49

SECTION III -- TECHNOLOGY
1 Drilling Rigs by Type, 2003-2013 55

SECTION IV -- PRODUCTS
1 Well Stimulation Material Demand by Type, 2013 83
2 Proppant Demand by Type, 2013 86
3 Base Fluid Material Demand by Type, 2013 101
4 Fluid Additive Demand by Type, 2013 126

SECTION V -- REGIONS
1 Producing Wells by Region, 2013 143
2 Wells Completed by Region, 2013 145
3 Well Stimulation Material Demand by Region, 2013 147
4 Southern Region: Well Stimulation Material Demand by State, 2013 154
5 Midwestern Region: Well Stimulation Material Demand by State, 2013 172
6 Eastern Region: Well Stimulation Material Demand by State, 2013 186
7 Western Region: Well Stimulation Material Demand by State, 2013 200

SECTION VI -- INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
1 US Well Stimulation Material Market Share, 2013 210
2 Proppant Market Share, 2013 212
3 Chemicals & Gases Market Share, 2013 217 


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